其他五大茶类都是从绿茶演变而来

其他五大茶类都是从绿茶演变而来插图

中国最早出现的茶叶是绿茶,并且长时期存在。古人在制作各种绿茶时,由于工艺上的偏差或者一些偶然事件的启发,逐渐出现了与绿茶不同的茶类。目前中国确定的有六大茶类,另外五种都是从绿茶制作中演变而来。

Green tea is the earliest tea in China, and it exists for a long time. The ancients in the production of various kinds of green tea, due to the deviation in technology or some accidental events, gradually appeared different types of tea with green tea. At present, there are six types of tea in China, and the other five are all evolved from the production of green tea.

一、黄茶的由来

1、 The origin of yellow tea

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绿茶的基本工艺是杀青、揉捻、干燥,制成的茶清汤绿叶,所以称为绿茶。

The basic technology of green tea is to kill, knead and dry. The green leaves of the tea soup are made, so it is called green tea.

黄茶的产生很可能是从绿茶制作当中,某些工艺掌握不当演变而来。比如炒青、蒸青的时间过长,或者杀青后没有及时摊凉和及时揉捻,或者是揉捻后没有及时烘干、炒干,堆积过久,都会使叶子变黄,产生黄叶黄汤,这种茶与后来出现的黄茶十分类似。

The production of yellow tea is likely to be derived from the improper process of green tea production. For example, the time of frying and steaming green tea is too long, or it is not cooled and kneaded in time after sterilization, or it is not dried and fried in time after rolling, and accumulated for a long time, the leaves will turn yellow and produce yellow leaf yellow soup. This kind of tea is very similar to the yellow tea that appeared later.

二、黑茶的由来

2、 The origin of black tea

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绿茶杀青时叶量过多,火温偏低,使得杀青叶的颜色变为近似黑色的深褐绿色;或者将绿毛茶堆积后发酵,渥成黑色,这是产生黑茶的过程,时间大约在明代中期。

When green tea is killed, the amount of leaves is too much and the fire temperature is low, which makes the color of the killed green leaves turn to dark brown green, which is similar to black; or the green tea is piled up and fermented and turned into black, which is the process of producing black tea, which is about the middle of Ming Dynasty.

虽然普洱茶应该归属黑茶还是独立为第七大茶类,目前茶学界还没有最终定论,但普洱茶也属于后发酵茶类,特别是1974年渥堆发酵工艺出现后,普洱茶与黑茶的关系就更近了。所以,有必要特别说明一下普洱茶的由来。

Although Pu’er tea should be classified as black tea or independent as the seventh largest tea category, there is no final conclusion in tea academic circles, but Pu’er tea also belongs to post fermented tea. Especially after the emergence of wodui fermentation technology in 1974, the relationship between Pu’er tea and black tea is closer. Therefore, it is necessary to explain the origin of Pu’er tea.

普洱茶主产于云南的西双版纳、思茅一带,这一带历史上归普洱府管辖,普洱茶于是因普洱府而得名。

Pu’er tea is mainly produced in Xishuangbanna and Simao in Yunnan Province, which was under the jurisdiction of Pu’er government in history. Therefore, Pu’er tea was named after Pu’er house.

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普洱茶以大叶种晒青毛茶为原料,经后发酵工艺而成。晒青毛茶的制作工艺实际上就是目前晒青绿茶的制作工艺,所以现在也有一部分专家学者将未经发酵的大叶种晒青毛茶归属为绿茶,代表人物有曾任两任云南省茶叶协会会长的邹家驹先生。

Pu’er tea is made from large leaf sun dried green tea by post fermentation. In fact, the production technology of sun dried green tea is actually the production process of sun dried green tea at present. Therefore, some experts and scholars classify the non fermented large leaf sun green tea as green tea. The representative is Mr. Zou Jiaju, who was the president of Yunnan Tea Association for two years.

晒青毛茶经过长途贮运或者数年、数十年以上的仓储存放,会发生缓慢的自然后发酵,使得汤色红浓而有陈香味。1974年,渥堆发酵新工艺的研究,使得后发酵的时间大大缩短,从而产生了普洱“熟茶”。

After long-distance storage and transportation or storage for several years or more, sun dried green tea will undergo slow natural post fermentation, making the soup red and fragrant. In 1974, the research on new technology of Wotou pile fermentation greatly shortened the time of post fermentation, thus produced Pu’er “ripe tea”.

渥堆后发酵新工艺,使得晒青茶在高温高湿的条件下,加上微生物的作用,进行快速的后发酵,形成了具有红浓汤色和陈香味的普洱茶。

Under the condition of high temperature and high humidity, combined with the role of microorganisms, the sun dried green tea can be rapidly post fermented to form Pu’er tea with red and strong soup color and aging flavor.

三、白茶的由来

3、 The origin of white tea

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古代人采摘茶叶后会晒干收藏,这实际上就是原始的白茶。实际的白茶,使用茸毛多的芽叶,不炒不揉而制成。

Ancient people picked tea leaves and dried them in the sun. This is actually the original white tea. The actual white tea is made by using hairy buds and leaves without stir frying or kneading.

现代白茶是从宋代绿茶三色细芽、银丝水芽开始逐渐演变而来,最初是指干茶表面密布白色茸毫、色泽银白的“白毫银针”,后来又产生白牡丹、贡眉和寿眉等等。

Modern white tea evolved gradually from three color fine buds and silver water buds of green tea in Song Dynasty. At first, it refers to the “white hair silver needle” with White Velvet hair and silver color on the surface of dry tea, and then white peony, Gongmei and Shoumei were produced.

白茶是采摘大白茶树的芽叶制作而成,最早于咸丰、光绪年间,在福建政和被乡农偶然发现,嫩芽肥大、毫多,生晒制干,色白如银,香味俱佳。

White tea is made by picking the buds and leaves of the big white tea tree. It was first discovered in Zhenghe County of Fujian Province in the years of Xianfeng and Guangxu. The tender buds are large and numerous. It is dried in the sun. The color is as white as silver and the fragrance is good.

四、红茶的由来

4、 The origin of black tea

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在制茶的过程中,发现用日晒代替杀青,揉制后叶色红变,从而产生了红茶。

最早的红茶是福建崇安的小种红茶,工夫红茶始创于福建,而后传至安徽、江西等地,祁门功夫红茶是1875年余干成从福建罢官回乡,将福建红茶的制法带回去而产生的。

五、乌龙茶的由来

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乌龙茶的起源,茶学界还存在许多争论,有的推论出现于北宋,有的则认为出现于清代咸丰年间,但产生于福建是大家都比较认同的。

清代初年,武夷茶独特的制作工艺形成,现在福建崇安武夷岩茶的制作工艺就保留了很多武夷茶最初的传统工艺。

乌龙茶的原始制作工艺则始于一个故事:

据说,当时妇女采茶,一般会藏于怀中,归家后抖出制作。但有一个妇女因为家务繁忙,回到家后忙着做家务,忘记了及时制茶。直到第二天才记起制茶这件事,将茶从衣服中抖出,发现采摘的茶叶已经充分发酵,香气四溢。

于是有聪明的茶农悟出一个道理:生茶叶如果先发酵,可以大大的提高成品茶的质量。

从那以后,便依样画葫芦,采摘的茶叶借助左邻右舍的妇女帮忙发酵。但是毕竟大家都不是闲人,借人不易。通过不断地实践摸索,终于积累了比较规范的乌龙茶制作技艺,尤其是发酵,借助日晒,可以取代原始的“借怀”。

“借怀发酵”产生乌龙茶特有的香气,这是最早出现乌龙茶的原始工艺。

未经允许不得转载:饮茶乎 » 其他五大茶类都是从绿茶演变而来

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