茶叶里面都含有哪些物质?

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目前科学家们已经分析出茶叶内含的物质有500种之多,其中的大部分是有机化合物,而含量最多同时也是对茶品质影响最大的有以下这些:

At present, scientists have analyzed that there are as many as 500 kinds of substances in tea, most of which are organic compounds, and the contents are the most and also have the greatest impact on the quality of tea

一、多酚类物质

1、 Polyphenols

多酚类物质是茶叶中各种物质的总称,也叫作茶多酚、茶单宁、茶鞣质。茶鲜叶中的多酚类物质以类黄酮物质为主,包括:儿茶素、黄酮醇、黄酮、花青素类和酚酸类等。茶多酚的含量因茶树品种、季节、鲜叶老嫩等不同而有很大的差异,含量低的不到20%,含量高的可以达到40%。

Polyphenols are the general name of various substances in tea, also known as tea polyphenols, tea tannins, tea tannins. Flavonoids are the main polyphenols in fresh tea leaves, including catechin, flavonol, flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The content of tea polyphenols varies greatly with tea varieties, seasons and fresh leaves. The low content is less than 20%, and the high content can reach 40%.

多酚类物质对茶的色香味有很大的影响,是很重要的滋味物质,总体上具有苦涩味。鲜叶中的多酚类物质在加工过程中会发生一系列的水解、异构、氧化、聚合等反应,形成茶叶的浓强、鲜爽或醇和等等滋味。

Polyphenols have a great influence on the color and aroma of tea. They are very important taste substances and have bitter and astringent taste on the whole. During the processing of polyphenols in fresh leaves, a series of reactions such as hydrolysis, isomerization, oxidation and polymerization will take place to form the strong, fresh or mellow taste of tea.

鲜叶中多酚类物质含量适中,制出的绿茶品质比较好,滋味浓而且鲜爽;红茶的红色叶底和红亮汤色是多酚类物质的氧化聚合产物所形成的。

The results showed that the content of polyphenols in fresh leaves was moderate, the quality of green tea was better, the taste was strong and fresh; the red leaf bottom and red bright soup color of black tea were formed by the oxidative polymerization products of polyphenols.

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二、咖啡碱

2、 Caffeine

茶叶中的生物碱主要有咖啡碱、茶叶碱和可可碱,其中咖啡碱的含量最高。大约是2%~5%。咖啡碱本身味道苦,但是与多酚类物质及氧化产物形成络合物以后,苦涩味就会减轻,并且形成一种具有鲜爽滋味的物质。

The main alkaloids in tea are caffeine, theophylline and theobromine, and the content of caffeine is the highest. It’s about 2% – 5%. Caffeine itself tastes bitter, but when it forms a complex with polyphenols and oxidation products, the bitterness and astringency will be reduced and a fresh taste substance will be formed.

咖啡碱与儿茶素、茶黄素、茶红素、多糖、蛋白质和氨基酸等反应后所形成的物质,是红茶茶汤“冷后浑”的主要成分。所以,红茶“冷后浑”,说明是好茶。

The substance formed by the reaction of caffeine with catechin, theaflavin, thearubin, polysaccharide, protein and amino acid is the main component of black tea soup. Therefore, black tea “cold after muddy”, indicating that it is a good tea.

三、游离氨基酸、蛋白质和酶

3、 Free amino acids, proteins and enzymes

氨基酸和蛋白质都是茶树氮代谢的产物,一般情况下,鲜叶中蛋白质的含量约占干物质的20%~30%,其中的水溶性蛋白质对增强茶汤的滋味、浓度有促进作用。

Amino acids and proteins are the products of nitrogen metabolism in tea plants. Generally, the protein content in fresh leaves accounts for about 20% ~ 30% of dry matter. The water-soluble protein can enhance the taste and concentration of tea soup.

酶是茶树组织内具有高效和专一催化能力的特殊蛋白质,主要有水解酶、磷酸化酶、裂解酶、氧化还原酶、转移酶和同分异构酶等几类,既参与茶树的所有生命过程,也与茶叶加工的品质息息相关。

Enzymes are special proteins with high efficiency and specific catalytic ability in tea tissue, mainly including hydrolase, phosphorylase, lyase, oxidoreductase, transferase and isomerase. They are not only involved in all life processes of tea plant, but also related to the quality of tea processing.

鲜叶中的游离氨基酸有20多种,其中的茶氨酸是一种非蛋白质氨基酸,是茶叶中最主要的游离氨基酸。各种氨基酸具有特定的滋味,如甜味、酸味、咸味、苦味、鲜味等,是茶叶中重要的滋味物质。茶叶中的鲜味主要来源于氨基酸,特别是茶氨酸、谷氨酸、谷氨酰胺、天冬氨酸等。

There are more than 20 kinds of free amino acids in fresh leaves. Theanine is a non protein amino acid, which is the most important free amino acid in tea. All kinds of amino acids have special taste, such as sweet, sour, salty, bitter, delicious and so on. They are important taste substances in tea. The taste of tea mainly comes from amino acids, especially theanine, glutamic acid, glutamine and aspartic acid.

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四、色素

4、 Pigment

鲜叶中的色素包括脂溶性色素和水溶性色素两类。叶绿素和类胡萝卜素不溶于水,属于脂溶性色素;黄酮类物质和花青素能溶于水,属于水溶性色素。

The pigment in fresh leaves includes fat soluble pigment and water soluble pigment. Chlorophyll and carotenoids are lipid soluble pigments, but flavonoids and anthocyanins are water soluble pigments.

鲜叶中的叶绿素含量一般为1~7毫克/克。叶色黄绿的大叶种,叶绿素含量较低,适合制作红茶;叶色深绿的小叶种,叶绿素含量高,对绿茶的外形、色泽和叶底色泽有利,适合制作绿茶。

The chlorophyll content in fresh leaves is generally 1-7 mg / g. The large leaves with yellow green leaves have low chlorophyll content, which is suitable for making black tea; the small leaves with dark green leaves have high chlorophyll content, which is beneficial to the appearance, color and bottom color of green tea, and is suitable for making green tea.

鲜叶中的另一类色素是类胡萝卜素,颜色为黄色或者橙色,已经发现和鉴定的类胡萝卜素大约有15种,对于增进茶叶的香气有积极作用。

Another kind of pigment in fresh leaves is carotenoids, which are yellow or orange. About 15 kinds of carotenoids have been found and identified, which play a positive role in enhancing the aroma of tea.

五、矿质元素

5、 Mineral elements

目前已发现茶树各个器官中的矿质元素有30多种,其中大量元素约11种,包括氮、磷、钾、钙、镁、铁等等;微量元素20多种,包括锌、硼、钼、氟、钴、钠、硒等等。

At present, more than 30 kinds of mineral elements have been found in various organs of tea plant, including 11 kinds of large elements, including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, etc.; more than 20 kinds of trace elements, including zinc, boron, molybdenum, fluorine, cobalt, sodium, selenium, etc.

有些元素,比如氟,在一般植物中含量极微少,而在茶叶中的含量可以达到20~2500毫克/千克。矿质元素的含量主要受生长的土壤环境、新梢的老嫩以及不同的茶树品种影响。

Some elements, such as fluorine, are very low in common plants, but can reach 20-2500 mg / kg in tea. The content of mineral elements is mainly affected by the soil environment, the young and old shoots and different tea varieties.

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六、芳香物质

6、 Aromatic substances

鲜叶中具有芳香的挥发性物质,含量不到0.02%,但组成芳香物质的种类却有100余种,包括醇类、醛类和酸类等。鲜叶中含量最高的芳香物质是青叶醇,约占鲜叶香气成分的60%。

The content of aromatic volatile compounds in fresh leaves is less than 0.02%, but there are more than 100 kinds of aromatic compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes and acids. The highest content of aroma compounds in fresh leaves was cyanopherol, which accounted for 60% of the aroma components in fresh leaves.

在制茶过程中,香气物质发生相互作用和转化,形成新的香气成分。青叶醇具有明显的青草气,但沸点只有157℃,制茶过程中一部分因温度升高而挥发,一部分发生异构化变成反型青叶醇,使得制成的茶具有清香。

In the process of tea making, aroma substances interact and transform to form new aroma components. In the process of tea making, some of them are volatilized due to the increase of temperature, and some of them are isomerized into trans cyanophyll alcohol, which makes the tea set have delicate fragrance.

七、碳水化合物

7、 Carbohydrates

茶树鲜叶中的碳水化合物,主要有单糖、双糖和多糖,含量约占干物质的20%~30%。单糖和双糖易溶于水,具有甜味,是茶叶甜滋味的物质之一;同时单糖与游离氨基酸发生反应后转变成香气物质,使得茶叶散发茶香。

The carbohydrate in the fresh leaves of tea plant is mainly monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide, accounting for 20% ~ 30% of dry matter. Monosaccharide and disaccharide are easily soluble in water and have a sweet taste, which is one of the sweet taste substances of tea; at the same time, monosaccharide and free amino acid react to transform into aroma substances, which make tea give off tea fragrance.

多糖中含量最多的是纤维素和半纤维素,纤维素的含量与茶叶的嫩度呈高度负相关,是茶叶嫩度的重要化学指标。

Cellulose and hemicellulose are the most abundant polysaccharides. Cellulose content is highly negatively correlated with tea tenderness, which is an important chemical index of tea tenderness.

鲜叶中还含有果胶质,果胶质有利于鲜叶在加工中形成条索,对茶的色泽和光润度都有好处。

Pectin is also found in fresh leaves. Pectin is beneficial to the formation of streaks in the processing of fresh leaves, which is beneficial to the color and luster of tea.

另外,鲜叶中含有一定量的茶叶皂素,味苦而辛辣,在水中溶解后容易起泡,这也就是为什么冲头泡茶的时候,表面会浮着一层泡沫的原因。不过不用担心,这层泡沫不但无害,反而有益,科学研究已经证实,茶皂素具有抗菌消炎、抗氧化的作用。

In addition, fresh leaves contain a certain amount of tea saponin, bitter and spicy, and easy to blister in the water. This is what causes the surface to float with a bubble when brewing tea. But don’t worry, this layer of foam is not only harmless, but beneficial. Scientific research has confirmed that tea saponin has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidation effects.

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八、维生素

8、 Vitamins

茶树鲜叶中含有多种维生素,其中维生素C含量最高,是重要的营养成分。

The fresh leaves of tea plant contain many kinds of vitamins, among which vitamin C is the most important nutritional component.

春茶鲜叶中维生素C的含量最高,其中尤以第一叶和第二叶含量较高,成熟叶的含量则相对较低;夏秋茶的维生素C含量逐渐减少。

The content of vitamin C in fresh leaves of spring tea was the highest, especially in the first and second leaves, while that in mature leaves was relatively low; the content of vitamin C in summer and autumn tea decreased gradually.

九、类脂

9、 Lipids

茶叶水解时产生脂肪酸的物质称为类脂,在茶树鲜叶中类脂的含量为40~90毫克/克,主要为糖脂、中性脂和磷脂。

Lipids are the substances that produce fatty acids during tea hydrolysis. The content of lipids in fresh tea leaves is 40-90 mg / g, mainly including glycolipids, neutral lipids and phospholipids.

在脂肪氧化酶的催化作用下,鲜叶中的类脂物质经过水解和转化后可以形成烯醇和己烯醛等含有青香型的香气物质,促进茶叶香气的形成。

Under the catalysis of lipoxygenase, the lipids in fresh leaves can be hydrolyzed and transformed into enol and hexenal, which can promote the formation of tea aroma.

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十、有机酸

10、 Organic acids

鲜叶中含有多种有机酸,最高可以达到干物质的3% 左右,包括苹果酸、柠檬酸、没食子酸等等。

Fresh leaves contain a variety of organic acids, up to 3% of dry matter, including malic acid, citric acid, gallic acid and so on.

有机酸具有酸味,是茶叶的滋味物质之一。脂肪酸参与茶叶香气物质的形成,没食子酸、绿原酸等属于酚酸一类的物质,参与红茶制作过程中的化学变化,与红茶色素的形成有关。

Organic acid is one of the taste substances of tea. Fatty acids are involved in the formation of aroma substances in tea. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids participate in the chemical changes in the process of black tea production, which is related to the formation of black tea pigment.

以上就是茶叶中内含的主要物质,关于每一种物质的情况,以后在相应的文章里我们再做更详细的介绍,希望大家读完后,对于自己喝的那一片茶叶有最基本的科学认识,而不是盲目听信别人的吹嘘。

The above are the main substances contained in tea. We will give a more detailed introduction to each substance in the corresponding articles later. I hope you will have the most basic scientific knowledge about the piece of tea you drink after reading, instead of blindly listening to other people’s boasting.

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