圆炒青绿茶的初制工艺

圆炒青绿茶的初制工艺插图

我们在前面介绍过,圆炒青绿茶实际上就是“珠茶”,因为浙江的平水镇是圆炒青绿茶的主要集散地,所以又被称为“平水珠茶”、“平绿”、“平炒青”。

As we mentioned earlier, round fried green tea is actually “pearl tea”. Because Pingshui town in Zhejiang Province is the main distribution center of round roasted green tea, it is also known as “pingshuizhu tea”, “Pinglv” and “pingchaoqing”.

圆炒青绿茶的初制工艺有六道:杀青、揉捻、二青、小锅、对锅和大锅。

There are six primary processing techniques of round fried green tea: killing green tea, rolling green tea, two green tea, small pot, Double pot and large pot.

(1)杀青

(1) Kill the green

圆炒青的杀青工艺基本上与长炒青绿茶相同,杀青时,要遵循“高温杀青,先高后低”、“抛闷结合、多抛少闷”、“嫩叶老杀、老叶嫩杀”的原则。

The green killing technology of round roasted green tea is basically the same as that of long fried green tea. The principles of “high temperature green tea, high temperature first and low temperature”, “combination of throwing and depressing, throwing more and less depressing” and “killing young leaves old and killing old leaves tender” should be followed.

在杀青叶的质量上,圆炒青绿茶有自己的要求。杀青叶的含水量不能太低,否则会影响揉捻和干燥时的“成圆”质量,所以含水量一般都在60%以上,这是与长炒青绿茶的一个区别。

In terms of the quality of green leaves, round fried green tea has its own requirements. The moisture content of green tea leaves should not be too low, otherwise it will affect the “round” quality during rolling and drying, so the water content is generally above 60%, which is a difference from long fried green tea.

圆炒青绿茶的初制工艺插图1

(2)揉捻

(2) Rolling

杀青叶经过短暂的摊放后就可以揉捻,在揉捻时间上,嫩叶大约是10~15分钟,老叶大约是15~20分钟。揉捻后的茶叶,细胞破碎率在45%~60%。

After a short period of spreading, the leaves can be rolled. In terms of rolling time, the young leaves are about 10-15 minutes, and the old leaves are about 15-20 minutes. After rolling, the cell breakage rate was 45% ~ 60%.

(3)二青

(3) Erqing

揉捻后还需要进一步杀青,一般采用滚筒炒干机,称为“炒二青”,目的是将杀青叶的含水量降低到合格范围,以便进行后续的工艺。

After rolling, it is necessary to further kill the green. Generally, the drum drying machine is used, which is called “stir frying two green”. The purpose is to reduce the moisture content of the cyaniding leaves to the qualified range, so as to carry out the follow-up process.

含水量在65%的杀青叶,二青时间大约需要1个小时,含水量在60%,时间大约是30分钟。二青叶的含水量直接影响炒小锅的操作,如果太干,不容易成圆;如果太潮,容易结块,含水量在40%左右最好。

When the moisture content is 65%, the second green time is about 1 hour, the moisture content is 60%, and the time is about 30 minutes. The water content of Erqing leaves directly affects the operation of the frying pot. If it is too dry, it is not easy to round; if it is too wet, it is easy to agglomerate, and the best moisture content is about 40%.

圆炒青绿茶的初制工艺插图2

(4)炒小锅

(4) Frying pan

炒小锅的目的是在蒸发水分的同时,使较细嫩和较碎的叶子成圆。锅温一般在120℃~160℃,温度较高,一是可以避免茶汁在锅中黏附,影响操作和茶叶的品质;二是较高的温度有助于下脚细碎的叶子成圆。炒小锅的时间是45分钟左右,小锅炒完,茶叶含水量下降到30%~35%。

The purpose of frying small pot is to make tender and broken leaves round while evaporating water. The temperature of the pot is generally between 120 ℃ and 160 ℃, and the temperature is relatively high. On the one hand, it can avoid the adhesion of tea juice in the pot, affecting the operation and the quality of tea; the second is that the higher temperature helps to round the finely broken leaves under the feet. The time of frying small pot is about 45 minutes. After frying, the water content of tea drops to 30% ~ 35%.

(5)炒对锅

(5) Stir fry the right pot

炒对锅是成圆的基本过程,颗粒的形成,尤其是腰档茶颗粒的形成都是在对锅中产生的。炒对锅时,锅温由60℃逐渐升高到80℃,时间2.5~3小时,比炒小锅时间延长很多。对锅炒完,茶叶含水量降到15%~20%。

The formation of granules, especially the formation of Yaoban tea granules, is produced in the process of round formation. When frying the right pot, the temperature of the pot gradually increased from 60 ℃ to 80 ℃, and the time was 2.5 ~ 3 hours, which was much longer than that of frying small pot. After frying, the water content of tea is reduced to 15% ~ 20%.

圆炒青绿茶的初制工艺插图3

(6)炒大锅

(6) Frying pan

炒大锅是进一步干燥,使得对锅中形成的颗粒得到固定,并使剩余的面张茶成圆。炒大锅的温度是由高到低,从80℃逐渐下降到60℃,时间是3小时左右。这是圆炒青绿茶干燥的最后一道工序,炒完后茶叶含水量为6%~7%。

The frying pan is further dried so that the particles formed in the pan are fixed and the remaining dough tea is rounded. The temperature of frying cauldron is from high to low, from 80 ℃ to 60 ℃, and the time is about 3 hours. This is the last drying process of round roasted green tea. After frying, the moisture content of tea is 6% ~ 7%.

由上可见,炒小锅、炒对锅和炒大锅虽都是圆炒青绿茶的成形工艺,但是每道工艺的目的和要求都是不同的,所以有“小锅脚、对锅腰、大锅头”的说法。

It can be seen from the above that although frying the small pot, frying the right pot and frying the large pot are all the forming processes of round fried green tea, the purposes and requirements of each process are different, so there is a saying of “small pot feet, opposite pot waist, big pot head”.

最后炒大锅时,为了防止茶叶失水太快,在后期可以适当加盖闷炒,通过“抛闷结合、多抛少闷”,有助于形成良好的外形颗粒。

Finally, in order to prevent the tea from losing water too quickly, it is necessary to cover it properly in the later stage of frying. The combination of throwing and stuffing, throwing more and less depressing, is helpful to form good shape particles.

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