高温杀青、先高后低;嫩叶老杀、老叶嫩杀,一次性讲清长炒青绿茶的杀青工艺

高温杀青、先高后低;嫩叶老杀、老叶嫩杀,一次性讲清长炒青绿茶的杀青工艺插图

长炒青绿茶的杀青工艺

Green killing technology of long fried green tea

中国的绿茶按制造方法可以分为四大类:炒青绿茶、烘青绿茶、蒸青绿茶、晒青绿茶。其中以炒青绿茶最多。

Green tea in China can be divided into four categories according to the manufacturing methods: roasted green tea, baked green tea, steamed green tea and sun dried green tea. Among them, fried green tea is the most.

炒青绿茶按最终制成的形态又分为长炒青绿茶、圆炒青绿茶、扁炒青绿茶等等。其中以长炒青绿茶最多。

According to the final form, the green tea can be divided into long fried green tea, round fried green tea, flat fried green tea and so on. Among them, the most famous green tea is long fried green tea.

对于每一个产区,长炒青绿茶的具体加工虽然并不完全相同,但是主要的工艺都是一样的,有四道工序:杀青、揉捻、解块筛分、干燥。其中杀青是关键的工序。今天我们先来介绍长炒青绿茶的杀青工艺。

For each producing area, although the specific processing of long fried green tea is not exactly the same, but the main process is the same, there are four processes: green, rolling, deblocking, screening, drying. Among them, cyaniding is the key process. Today, let’s introduce the technology of killing green tea.

高温杀青、先高后低;嫩叶老杀、老叶嫩杀,一次性讲清长炒青绿茶的杀青工艺插图1

杀青的目的有四个:

There are four purposes to kill the green

(1)利用高温迅速破坏鲜叶中酶的活性,制止多酚类化合物的酶促氧化,使茶叶保持色泽翠绿。

(1) The enzyme activity in fresh leaves was destroyed rapidly by high temperature, and the enzymatic oxidation of polyphenol compounds was stopped to keep the tea green.

(2)利用高温促使低沸点的芳香物质挥发,散发青草气,发展丰富茶香。

(2) Using high temperature to promote the volatilization of low boiling point aromatic substances, emit grass gas, and develop rich tea fragrance.

(3)加速鲜叶中化学成分的水解和热裂解,为绿茶最终品质的形成奠定基础。

(3) It can accelerate the hydrolysis and pyrolysis of chemical components in fresh leaves, and lay a foundation for the formation of final quality of green tea.

(4)蒸发一部分水分,使叶质变得柔软,增加韧性,便于揉捻成型。

(4) Evaporation part of the water, so that leaves become soft, increase toughness, easy to roll molding.

高温杀青、先高后低;嫩叶老杀、老叶嫩杀,一次性讲清长炒青绿茶的杀青工艺插图2

杀青时应该遵循两个原则:

There are two principles to be followed in the process of killing

(1)高温杀青,先高后低

(1) High temperature, first high and then low

当温度达到70℃时,鲜叶中的酶开始钝化;当温度升到80℃时,酶在短暂的时间内几乎全部变性;当温度接近100℃时,几乎所有的酶在顷刻间就失去了催化作用。因此,在杀青初期就要求将叶温迅速提高到80℃以上,这样就能有效地防止红梗、红叶的产生。

When the temperature reached 70 ℃, the enzymes in fresh leaves began to be inactivated; when the temperature rose to 80 ℃, almost all the enzymes were denatured in a short time; when the temperature was close to 100 ℃, almost all the enzymes lost their catalytic effect in an instant. Therefore, the leaf temperature should be raised to above 80 ℃ at the early stage of green removal, so as to effectively prevent the production of red stem and red leaf.

但温度持续过高对茶叶的品质也很不利,会使较多的叶绿素被破坏,叶色泛黄;茶叶会产生焦斑、爆点,嫩芽尖和鲜叶边缘容易被烤焦,茶叶会产生烟焦味。所以在高温杀青时,还必须做到“先高后低”。这样杀青后的鲜叶才能杀匀杀透,而且老而不焦、嫩而不生。

However, the continuous high temperature is not good for the quality of tea, which will cause more chlorophyll to be destroyed and the leaf color will turn yellow; the tea will produce burnt spots and explosion points, the tip of tender buds and the edge of fresh leaves are easy to be scorched, and the tea will produce burnt tobacco flavor. Therefore, in the high temperature sterilization, we must also achieve “first high and then low”. In this way, the fresh leaves can be killed evenly and thoroughly, and they are old but not burnt and tender but not born.

高温杀青、先高后低;嫩叶老杀、老叶嫩杀,一次性讲清长炒青绿茶的杀青工艺插图3

(2)嫩叶老杀,老叶嫩杀。

(2) Young leaf old kill, old leaf young kill.

嫩杀的意思是杀青的时间适当短一点,叶子失水适当少一点,老杀的意思与此相反。

The meaning of “nensha” means that the time to kill green leaves should be shorter and the water loss of leaves should be less. The meaning of old killing is the opposite.

之所以嫩叶需要老杀,是因为嫩叶的水分含量高,酶的活性比较强,鲜叶的韧性大,黏性重,适当老杀有利于提高品质。

The reason why the tender leaves need to be killed is that the tender leaves have high water content, strong enzyme activity, strong toughness and strong viscosity. Proper old killing is conducive to improving the quality.

老叶的水分含量低,酶的活性比较低,适当嫩杀有利于形成条索,减少碎末茶。

The moisture content of old leaves is low, and the enzyme activity is relatively low. It is beneficial to form the stripline and reduce the broken tea.

高温杀青、先高后低;嫩叶老杀、老叶嫩杀,一次性讲清长炒青绿茶的杀青工艺插图4

杀青到什么程度最合适?

To what extent is the most appropriate?

杀青的程度主要靠制茶人的经验感官去判断。杀青太嫩,揉捻后碎茶片多,外形条索差,香气带有生青,滋味会显得涩口;杀青太老,揉捻后末茶比较多,难以成条,且容易产生烟焦味。

The degree of cyaniding mainly depends on the tea maker’s experience and senses. It is too tender, there are many pieces of broken tea after rolling, the shape is poor, the aroma is green, and the taste will be astringent; if it is too old, there are more tea leaves after rolling, which is difficult to form strips, and it is easy to produce burnt tobacco flavor.

一般情况下,杀青后的鲜叶减重率约为40%就基本处于最合适的杀青程度。100公斤的鲜叶,杀青后重量在63公斤左右最好,杀青叶的含水率大致是60%。

In general, the weight loss rate of fresh leaves after sterilization is about 40%, which is basically in the most appropriate degree. The weight of fresh leaves of 100 kg is about 63 kg, and the moisture content of the leaves is about 60%.

从手感上去感知,可以手捏成团,稍有弹性,嫩梗不易折断;从色泽上看,色泽显墨绿,叶面失去光泽。

From the feel of the hand, it can be squeezed into a ball, slightly elastic, and the tender stem is not easy to break; from the color, the color is dark green, and the leaf surface is tarnished.

未经允许不得转载:饮茶乎 » 高温杀青、先高后低;嫩叶老杀、老叶嫩杀,一次性讲清长炒青绿茶的杀青工艺

赞 (0)