储存好茶需要注意哪些要素?

储存好茶需要注意哪些要素?插图

茶叶之所以会变质、陈化,是因为茶叶中的各种成分会发生氧化、水解和转化,这其中,影响最大的因素是温度、水分、氧气和光线,以及这四个因素之间的相互作用。

The reason why tea is deteriorated and aged is that various components in tea will be oxidized, hydrolyzed and transformed. Among them, the most influential factors are temperature, moisture, oxygen and light, as well as the interaction among these four factors.

一、温度

1、 Temperature

温度的高低,影响着茶叶各种成分氧化、聚合反应的速度。温度越高,反应的速度就会越快。温度每升高10℃,茶叶褐变的速度就会增加3~5倍。

Temperature affects the rate of oxidation and polymerization of various components in tea. The higher the temperature, the faster the reaction. The browning rate of tea leaves increases 3-5 times when the temperature increases by 10 ℃.

所以,要有效的防止茶叶褐变,需要在10℃以下的温度去保存。如果温度达到零下20℃,就几乎能完全防止茶叶陈化变质。

Therefore, in order to effectively prevent the browning of tea leaves, it is necessary to keep them at a temperature below 10 ℃. If the temperature reaches – 20 ℃, it can almost completely prevent the tea from aging. The rate of leaf browning will increase 3-5 times.

温度越高,茶叶中的酶活性就越高,茶多酚、茶黄素、茶红素的氧化、聚合反应速度就会大大加快,新茶迅速老化,品质损失速度快。

The higher the temperature, the higher the enzyme activity in tea, the faster the oxidation and polymerization of tea polyphenols, theaflavins and thearubin, the faster the aging of new tea and the fast quality loss.

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二、水分

2、 Moisture

许多朋友或许认为,越干燥的茶叶越好保存,越不容易变质,其实并不是。茶叶属于食品之一,对于食品而言,绝对干燥会使得各种成分直接暴露于空气中而被迅速氧化。

Many friends may think that the drier the tea leaves are, the better they are preserved and the less likely they are to deteriorate. Tea is one of the food, for food, absolute drying will make all kinds of ingredients directly exposed to the air and be quickly oxidized.

研究认为,当茶叶中的水分含量在3%左右时,茶叶的成分与水分子就会呈现出单层的关系,水分子形成一层保护膜,将茶叶与空气隔离开来,防止茶叶中的成分被氧化。

The results show that when the moisture content of tea is about 3%, the relationship between tea components and water molecules will be monolayer. Water molecules form a protective film to isolate tea from the air and prevent the components in tea from being oxidized.

但是水分含量一旦增多,就会发生相反的作用,水分子会变成一种溶剂,使得茶叶中的各种成分发生激烈的化学变化。尤其是水分含量超过6%时,变化会特别激烈。结果就是叶绿素迅速降解,茶多酚自动氧化,茶叶色泽变质的速度直线上升。

However, once the water content increases, the opposite effect will occur. Water molecules will become a kind of solvent, which makes the various components in tea undergo intense chemical changes. Especially when the moisture content is more than 6%, the change will be very intense. As a result, chlorophyll is rapidly degraded, tea polyphenols are oxidized automatically, and the rate of tea color deterioration is increasing.

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三、氧气

3、 Oxygen

氧气的特点是,它几乎能与所有的元素结合,而变成氧化物,茶叶内的物质元素也不例外。

The characteristic of oxygen is that it can combine with almost all the elements and become oxides, and the material elements in tea are no exception.

茶叶氧化的特殊性还在于,茶叶中含有活性酶,加速氧化变得激烈。所以上面我们强调低温的重要性,就是因为低温环境可以抑制酶的活性。在酶失去活性时,虽然茶叶还是会发生氧化,但速度会缓慢许多。

The particularity of tea oxidation is that tea contains active enzymes, which accelerate the oxidation to become intense. So we emphasize the importance of low temperature, because low temperature can inhibit the activity of enzymes. When the enzyme loses its activity, although the tea will still be oxidized, the rate will be much slower.

儿茶素、维生素C、茶多酚、茶黄素、茶红素等的氧化以及脂类氧化而产生的陈味物质,都与氧气的存在有很大关系,所以,要防止茶叶迅速氧化,就需要隔绝氧气。

The oxidation of catechins, vitamin C, tea polyphenols, theaflavins, thearubins, etc., as well as the aging substances produced by lipid oxidation, are closely related to the existence of oxygen. Therefore, in order to prevent rapid oxidation of tea, it is necessary to isolate oxygen.

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四、光线

4、 Light

光线,其实是一种能量。被光照射到,能量快速提升,各种化学反应就会加速,所以,光照非常不利于茶叶的贮存。

Light, in fact, is an energy. The energy of the tea will be accelerated by the light, so it will not promote the chemical reaction.

茶叶一旦受到强烈的光照,尤其是紫外线,叶绿素会快速褪色,同时还会生成一些带陈味特征的物质。对于绿茶而言,光线会使得脂肪酸被氧化生成醛类物质,香气变坏,产生强烈的日晒味。

Once the tea is exposed to strong light, especially ultraviolet light, the chlorophyll will quickly fade, and some substances with aging characteristics will be generated. For green tea, light can oxidize fatty acids into aldehydes, which will deteriorate the aroma and produce a strong sunlight flavor.

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明白了影响茶叶变质的四个最主要的因素,现在,你也可以为自己的好茶设计一个科学又安全的茶仓了,那就是:温度至少在10℃以下,茶叶水分最好保持在3%左右,尽量隔绝氧气,避免光线直射。

Understand the four main factors that affect the deterioration of tea. Now, you can also design a scientific and safe tea warehouse for your good tea. That is: the temperature should be at least below 10 ℃, and the moisture content of tea should be kept at about 3%. Try to isolate oxygen and avoid direct sunlight.

这是大多数茶类尤其是绿茶的存储应该遵循的,但不可一概而论,个别的特殊茶类,则需要根据实际情况去调整。

This is the most tea, especially green tea storage should follow, but can not be generalized, individual special tea, need to adjust according to the actual situation.

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