喝了茶睡不着觉是什么原因?

喝了茶睡不着觉是什么原因?插图

经常听到一些茶友向我们反映,晚上喝了茶后睡不着觉。其实包括笔者自己,刚开始学喝茶时,也常常会失眠,尤其是晚上喝了生茶以后。后来看茶书才知道,这是因为茶叶中含有一类叫做生物碱的东西,生物碱可以让神经兴奋,太兴奋了,自然就睡不着了。

We often hear from some tea friends that they can’t sleep after drinking tea at night. In fact, including the author himself, just began to learn to drink tea, also often insomnia, especially after drinking raw tea at night. Later, I learned from the tea book that this is because tea contains a class of things called alkaloids, alkaloids can make nerves excited, too excited, naturally can’t sleep.

茶叶中的生物碱主要有三种:咖啡碱、茶叶碱、可可碱。咖啡碱的含量最高,大约为2%~5%,茶叶碱含量约为0.002%,可可碱含量约为0.05%。可见,咖啡碱是起作用的最主要原因,所以我们通过以下问题重点来了解咖啡碱。

There are three kinds of alkaloids in tea: caffeine, theobromine and theobromine. The content of caffeine is the highest, about 2% ~ 5%, the content of theophylline is about 0.002%, and the content of theobromine is about 0.05%. It can be seen that caffeine is the main reason for its action, so we can understand caffeine through the following key issues.

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一、咖啡碱是什么?

1、 What is caffeine?

咖啡碱属于生物碱,是一类仅仅来源于生物界的碱类物质,这类物质都含有一种共同的氮元素,因此又被称为含氮的有机化合物,广泛存在于植物界中。

Caffeine is a kind of alkaloids, which only comes from the biological kingdom. These substances contain a common nitrogen element, so it is also known as nitrogen-containing organic compounds, which widely exist in the plant kingdom.

咖啡碱是茶树氮循环的重要物质,和蛋白质、氨基酸一样,与茶树的生长代谢有着密切的关系,新陈代谢旺盛的嫩梢部分含量较多,品质好的茶叶含量较高,粗老茶叶含量较低;茶树哪个季节长得快,哪个季节的咖啡碱含量就多。

Caffeine is an important substance in the nitrogen cycle of tea plants. Like protein and amino acids, caffeine is closely related to the growth and metabolism of tea plants. The content of young shoots with vigorous metabolism is more, the content of good quality tea is higher, and the content of coarse and old tea is lower. The caffeine content of tea plants grows faster in which season.

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二、都含有咖啡碱,为什么茶叶能苦后回甘,而咖啡却不能?

2、 All contain caffeine. Why can tea taste bitter but not coffee?

咖啡碱本身是苦的,而且苦得有点让人难受,几乎不能转变成回甘。同为世界三大饮料之一的咖啡也含有较多的咖啡碱,但有一个现象很奇怪,咖啡的苦是真苦,而茶叶的苦只是暂时的苦,过后却能回甘。都含有咖啡碱,为什么茶叶能苦后回甘,而咖啡却不能?

Caffeine itself is bitter, and it’s so bitter that it can hardly turn into sweet. Coffee, one of the three major drinks in the world, also contains more caffeine. However, there is a strange phenomenon: coffee is really bitter, while tea is only temporary bitter, but it can return to sweet later. All contain caffeine. Why can tea taste bitter but not coffee?

这是因为茶叶的主要内涵物质,并不是只有咖啡碱,还有茶多酚、蛋白质、氨基酸、多糖等等。咖啡碱与茶多酚以及氧化产物形成络合物以后,苦涩味就会减轻,并且会形成一种具有鲜爽滋味的物质,转变回甘。

This is because the main content of tea, not only caffeine, but also tea polyphenols, protein, amino acids, polysaccharides and so on. After caffeine forms complex with tea polyphenols and oxidation products, the bitterness and astringency will be reduced, and a kind of substance with fresh taste will be formed, which will turn back to sweet.

同时,咖啡碱与儿茶素、茶黄素、茶红素、多糖、蛋白质和氨基酸等反应后会形成一种物质,也就是红茶茶汤冷却后产生的乳凝状物质的主要成分,大家常说的红茶“冷后浑”。其实,“冷后浑”比较明显的茶恰恰说明是好茶,表明其中的儿茶素、茶氨酸、咖啡碱含量较高。

At the same time, caffeine reacts with catechins, theaflavins, thearubins, polysaccharides, proteins and amino acids to form a substance, which is the main component of the milk curd material produced after the black tea soup is cooled. It is commonly said that black tea is “cold and muddy”. In fact, the tea with obvious “cold after muddy” just means that it is a good tea, which shows that the content of catechin, theanine and caffeine is higher.

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三、什么样的茶叶咖啡碱含量高?

3、 What kind of tea is high in caffeine content?

茶叶中咖啡碱含量的多少,有自己的分布规律:

The content of caffeine in tea has its own distribution law

(1)茶树新稍,越嫩的部位,含咖啡碱越多,反之越老的原料,含咖啡碱越少。

(1) The tenderer the tea plant is, the more caffeine it contains. On the contrary, the older the tea plant is, the less caffeine it contains.

(2)大叶种类含咖啡碱普遍比中小叶种要多。

(2) The content of caffeine in large leaf species was higher than that in medium and small leaf species.

(3)夏季气温较高,茶树生长最旺盛,夏茶所含咖啡碱最高。茶多酚也是这样,所以夏茶往往是又苦又涩的。

(3) In summer, the temperature is higher, the growth of tea plant is the most vigorous, and the caffeine content of summer tea is the highest. Tea polyphenols are the same, so summer tea is often bitter and astringent.

(4)咖啡碱在温度达到178度时开始变成气体升华,因此高温长时间炒制或有挥锅工序的茶叶,咖啡碱含量相对较少,茶叶烘焙过程中咖啡碱会减少一部分。

(4) When the temperature reaches 178 ℃, caffeine begins to turn into gas sublimation. Therefore, the content of caffeine in the tea which is stir fried at high temperature for a long time or with the process of volatilization is relatively low, and the caffeine content will be reduced in the process of tea baking.

特别需要说明的是,咖啡碱虽然是茶叶滋味的重要组成物质,但却并不是说含量越多越好,对于一部分人群,甚至并不适宜喝含有咖啡碱的饮料。

In particular, although caffeine is an important component of tea taste, it does not mean that the more caffeine is, the better. For some people, it is not even suitable to drink drinks containing caffeine.

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四、咖啡碱有什么功效和作用?

4、 What effect does caffeine have?

冲泡后的茶叶,80%的咖啡碱都会溶于茶汤中。咖啡碱的主要功效有:

After brewing, 80% caffeine will be dissolved in the tea soup. The main functions of caffeine are as follows:

(1)兴奋作用。咖啡碱能兴奋中枢神经系统,增强大脑皮层的兴奋过程,从而使头脑清醒,帮助思维、消除疲劳,提高工作效率,这点与咖啡相同。

(1) Excitatory effect. Caffeine can stimulate the central nervous system, enhance the excitation process of cerebral cortex, so as to make the brain clear, help thinking, eliminate fatigue, and improve work efficiency, which is the same as coffee.

(2)利尿作用。咖啡碱通过兴奋血液运动中枢、舒张肾血管、增加肾脏的血流量、提高肾小球的过滤率来实现利尿作用。对于心脏性水肿、水滞留等症状有显著疗效,也对肾结核和肾结石有良好的防治效果。

(2) Diuretic effect. Caffeine can stimulate blood movement center, relax renal blood vessels, increase renal blood flow and improve glomerular filtration rate to achieve diuretic effect. For cardiac edema, water retention and other symptoms have a significant effect, but also on renal tuberculosis and kidney stones have good prevention and treatment effect.

(3)强心、解痉、平喘作用。咖啡碱可以松弛冠状动脉、促进血液循环和松弛支气管平滑肌,从而可以解痉平喘、治疗支气管咳喘。

(3) It can strengthen heart, relieve spasm and relieve asthma. Caffeine can relax coronary artery, promote blood circulation and relax bronchial smooth muscle, so it can relieve spasm, relieve asthma and treat bronchial cough and asthma.

(4)解酒精毒害作用。咖啡碱能提高肝脏对物质的代谢能力,增强血液循环,把血液中的酒精排出体外,缓和与消除由酒精所引起的刺激。

(4) Toxic effect of jiejiujing. Caffeine can improve the liver’s ability of metabolism of substances, enhance blood circulation, discharge alcohol from the blood, and relieve and eliminate the stimulation caused by alcohol.

由于茶叶中的咖啡碱对大脑有兴奋作用,对心脏有一定的刺激性,所以一些特殊人群,如高龄老人、孕妇、低龄儿童、心脏病人及神经衰弱患者只能不喝或少喝咖啡碱含量多的茶叶。

Because the caffeine in tea can stimulate the brain and stimulate the heart, some special people, such as the elderly, pregnant women, young children, heart patients and neurasthenia patients, can only not drink or drink less tea with high caffeine content.

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