茶树新梢的生长发育有两个明显的特点:顶端优势、多次萌发生长

茶树新梢的生长发育有两个明显的特点:顶端优势、多次萌发生长插图

茶树是一个整体,它的生长发育,有机并且错综复杂地联系在一起,采去新梢,就会引起茶树内部生理机能的变化,植株各个部位的生长状况也会随之变化。所以在对茶树进行采摘前,必须先了解茶树新梢的发育特点,进行合理采摘。

Tea plant is a whole. Its growth and development are organically and intricately linked together. Picking new shoots will cause changes in physiological functions of tea plants, and the growth status of various parts of the plant will also change accordingly. Therefore, before picking tea trees, we must first understand the development characteristics of new shoots of tea plants and carry out reasonable picking.

茶树新梢的生长发育有两个明显的特点:一是顶端优势,二是一年中多次萌发生长。

There are two obvious characteristics in the growth and development of tea shoots: the first is the apical dominance; the second is the multiple germination and growth in a year.

茶树新梢的生长发育有两个明显的特点:顶端优势、多次萌发生长插图1

一、顶端优势

1、 Top advantage

茶树新梢发育时,有顶芽和侧芽,它们在生长上是相互制约的。顶芽最先萌发,生长最快,占有优势地位,也就是我们常说的具有顶端优势。

During the development of tea shoots, there are terminal buds and lateral buds, which restrict each other in growth. The apical bud germinates first, grows fastest, occupies the dominant position, namely we often say has the apical superiority.

顶芽旺盛生长,会抑制侧芽的生长。侧芽萌发推迟,生长缓慢,数量减少。如果不及时采摘,任它自然生长,新梢每一年最多只能重复生长2~3轮。

The vigorous growth of terminal bud will inhibit the growth of lateral bud. The germination of lateral buds was delayed, the growth was slow and the number of lateral buds decreased. If it is not picked in time and allowed to grow naturally, the new shoots can only grow 2-3 times a year at most.

通过人工及时采摘侧芽,在留下的小桩上,又会有1~3个侧芽分别萌发并长成新梢,再供茶人采摘。在人为的干预下,即使是同一个品种的茶树,新梢生长的次数都要比自然生长的增加2~3次。同时还能使茶芽萌发提前,发芽密度增加。

By picking the lateral buds in time, there will be 1-3 lateral buds sprouting and growing into new shoots on the left piles for tea picking. Under the human intervention, even for the same tea variety, the number of new shoots growing increased 2-3 times than that of natural growth. At the same time, the germination of tea buds was advanced and the germination density was increased.

茶树新梢的生长发育有两个明显的特点:顶端优势、多次萌发生长插图2

二、一年中多次萌发生长

2、 It germinates and grows many times a year

茶树新梢一年中萌发轮次的多少,主要由气候条件和品种特性来决定。在正常的采摘情况下,江北茶区,山东东南部一带,一般能生长3~4次。

The number of sprouting cycles of tea shoots in a year is mainly determined by climatic conditions and variety characteristics. Under normal picking conditions, Jiangbei tea area, Southeast of Shandong Province, generally can grow 3 ~ 4 times.

在同样的环境条件下,茶树品种不同,新梢萌发的次数也不一样。中国农科院茶叶研究所调查发现,春天固定有20个新梢的情况下,到了9月中旬第四轮新梢萌发时,黄叶早只有7个新梢继续萌发,而龙井43和梅占各自都有14个新梢能再次萌发,显然龙井43和梅占的新梢萌发次数要高得多。

Under the same environmental conditions, different tea varieties have different sprouting times. According to the investigation of Tea Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, when there are 20 new shoots in spring, only 7 shoots of yellow leaf will continue to germinate in mid September, while 14 shoots of Longjing 43 and Meizhan can germinate again. Obviously, the number of new shoots germination of Longjing 43 and Meizhan is much higher.

茶树新梢的萌发次数与树龄、茶树管理水平也有关系,这里不再继续深入介绍,以后的文章里再给大家专门做详细介绍。

The germination times of tea shoots are also related to tree age and management level of tea trees. Here we will not continue to introduce them in depth, but will give you a detailed introduction in the following articles.

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