In the process of spreading and migrating from the origin, in order to adapt to the environment conditions in different places, there are various variations. In the long-term natural selection, six ecological types have been formed.
1、 Large leaf type of low latitude and high altitude Arbor
South of 23 degrees north latitude and 800-2500 meters above sea level is the most suitable ecological area for tea plants. The tea plants in this area have plump buds and leaves, high content of tea polyphenols and caffeine, and moderate content of amino acids, which are suitable for making black tea. It is mainly represented by Mengku Daye tea, Menghai Daye tea and Jinggu Dabai tea.
2、 Large leaf rain forest type of South Subtropical Tree
In the south of Tropic of cancer, the southeast of Yunnan and the south of Guangxi, which are below 550 meters above sea level, are also very suitable for tea plant growth. The tea plant in this area has high content of tea polyphenols and moderate content of amino acids, which is suitable for making black tea and special tea. It is mainly represented by Baimao tea in Malipo, Yunnan, Fangcheng Daye tea and Bobai tea.
3、 Large leaf type of small arbor in South Subtropics
The range of this area is 24-26 degrees north latitude and 300-1000 meters above sea level in Guangxi, central and northern Guangdong, Hunan and southern Jiangxi. Tea plant is characterized by thick leaves, high content of tea polyphenols and low content of amino acids, which is suitable for making black tea and green tea. It is mainly represented by Guangxi Longsheng Daye tea, Guangdong Ruyuan Daye tea and Hunan Rucheng Baimao tea.
4、 Medium subtropical small trees with large and medium leaves
It is located in the south of the Yangtze River at an altitude of 800 meters and 26-30 degrees north latitude. The cuticle of the tea is thick and the contents of tea polyphenols, amino acids and caffeine are moderate. It is suitable for making black tea, green tea and oolong tea. It is represented by Enshi Daye tea in Hubei Province, Liling tea in Hunan Province and Wuyi Narcissus in Fujian Province.
5、 Middle subtropical shrub with large, medium and small leaves
It is located in the North-South region of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, which is 30-32 degrees north latitude and 300 meters above sea level, and is also the North-South transition zone of tea distribution. Tea leaves can be divided into large and medium-sized, such as Hubei Xingshan Daye tea, Hunan Anhua middle leaf tea and Jiangsu Dongting small leaf tea. It is characterized by low content of tea polyphenols and high content of amino acids, which is suitable for making green tea and Gongfu black tea.
6、 Small leaf type of shrub in north subtropical and warm temperate zone
The area has reached 32-35 degrees north latitude and altitude below 200 meters, concentrated in Jiangsu, Anhui and Northern Hubei, Henan, Shaanxi and southern Gansu. Tea plants are characterized by slender buds and leaves, high content of amino acids and low content of tea polyphenols. Huoshan species in Anhui Province, Xinyang species in Henan Province and Ziyang species in Shaanxi Province are the representative species.