普洱茶发展史

普洱茶发展史插图

普洱茶主产于云南西双版纳、思茅一带,这一带古时候归属普洱府管辖,普洱茶就是因为普洱这个地方而得名,最早是指普洱所管辖的范围内生产的茶叶。

Pu’er tea is mainly produced in Xishuangbanna and Simao in Yunnan Province. This area was under the jurisdiction of Pu’er government in ancient times. Pu’er tea was named after Pu’er, which was originally produced within the jurisdiction of Pu’er.

云南采摘制作团块茶的历史非常悠久,在晋朝时,“南中茶子”云南紧团茶就与山西的葡萄、河南的苹果、山东的柿子、河北的栗子、恒阳的黄梨、巫山的红橘、西极的石蜜一起成为全国的名优特产。说明云南紧团茶至少在汉朝就产生啦。

Yunnan has a very long history of picking and making lump tea. In the Jin Dynasty, “nanzhong chazi” Yunnan jingtuan tea, together with Shanxi grapes, Henan apples, Shandong persimmons, Hebei chestnuts, Hengyang Huangli, Wushan tangerine, Xiji stone honey, became a national famous specialty. It shows that Yunnan jingtuan tea was produced in the Han Dynasty at least.

到了唐代,普洱茶已经开始作为商品行销西藏和内地。宋代时,大理国为了战争的需要,在普洱设置“茶马市场”,以普洱茶换取西藏的马匹,形成了历史上第一条从普洱到西藏的“茶马古道”。到了元代,蒙古人征战四方,普洱茶从那时就进入了俄国。

By the Tang Dynasty, Pu’er tea had been sold in Tibet and the mainland as a commodity. In Song Dynasty, in order to meet the needs of war, Dali set up a “tea horse market” in Pu’er to exchange Pu’er tea for Tibetan horses, forming the first “tea horse ancient road” from Pu’er to Tibet in history. In the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols fought in all directions, and Pu’er tea entered Russia from then on.

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明代时,《云南通志》、《滇略》中提到:普洱这个地方产茶,百姓们平常喝的,都是蒸压成团的普洱茶。说明了明朝的普洱茶已经普遍是蒸压团茶。

In the Ming Dynasty, “Yunnan Tongzhi” and “Dian Lue” mentioned that Pu’er is a place where tea is produced. People usually drink Pu’er tea by steaming. It shows that Pu’er tea in Ming Dynasty was already steam pressed group tea.

清代时,普洱茶成为贡茶,每年都要向朝廷进贡一定的数量。阮福在《普洱茶记》中有详细的记载:普洱茶,并非是普洱府界内所产,而是产于府属的思茅厅界内。思茅厅有六大茶山,每一年要向朝廷进贡的茶叶是:五斤重的团茶、三斤重的团茶、一斤重的团茶、四两重的团茶、一两五钱重的团茶,还有瓶装的芽茶、蕊茶,匣子装的茶膏,一共八种,采摘后蒸青,并揉捻为团饼。叶子少而嫩的是芽茶,三四月采的叫小满茶,六七月采的叫谷花茶。大的圆饼,叫做紧压茶;小的圆饼,叫做女儿茶,女儿茶是妇女在谷雨前采的,制成四两重的团茶。

In the Qing Dynasty, Pu’er tea became tribute tea, and a certain amount was paid to the imperial court every year. Ruan Fu has a detailed record in Pu’er tea records that Pu’er tea is not produced within the boundaries of Pu’er government, but produced in Simao hall, which belongs to the government. There are six tea mountains in Simao hall. Every year, there are eight kinds of tea to be paid to the imperial court: five catties of group tea, three jin of group tea, one jin of group tea, four or two times of group tea, one hundred and twenty-five yuan of group tea, as well as bottled bud tea, pistil tea, and tea paste in a box. After picking, they are steamed and rolled into pancakes. The bud tea with few leaves is called Xiaoman tea in March and April, and Guhua tea in June and July. The big round cake is called pressed tea; the small round cake is called daughter tea, which is picked by women before the grain rain and made into quadruple group tea.

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除了贡品团茶以外,清代民间制作销售的普洱茶还有普洱散茶、七子饼茶、沱茶、紧茶等,形态很多样化。除了部分芽茶、毛尖等晒青散茶外,多数是以晒青茶为原料进行蒸压成形的紧压茶。

In addition to the tribute group tea, Pu’er tea produced and sold by the people in the Qing Dynasty also included Pu’er loose tea, qizibing tea, Tuo tea, tight tea, etc. In addition to some bud tea, Maojian and other sun dried loose tea, most of them are pressed tea made from sun dried green tea.

传统的普洱茶在经过长途贮运或者数年、数十年以上的仓储存放,会进行缓慢的自然后发酵,汤色红浓而有陈香味。

After long-distance storage and transportation or storage for several years or more, the traditional Pu’er tea will undergo slow natural fermentation, and the soup is red in color and has an old flavor.

二十世纪四五十年代,有香港茶商从大陆购买普洱晒青茶,利用地窖里特殊的温度和湿度环境,人工促进晒青毛茶堆积发酵,制成小批量的陈香型普洱茶投入市场。

In the 1940s and 1950s, some Hong Kong tea merchants bought Pu’er sun dried green tea from the mainland, and artificially promoted the accumulation and fermentation of sun dried green tea by taking advantage of the special temperature and humidity environment in the cellar, and produced a small batch of aged fragrant Pu’er tea and put it into the market.

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1957年,广东省茶叶进出口公司仿效类似方法而获得成功,开创了对港澳、东南亚和日本市场大批量出口大叶型普洱茶的局面。

In 1957, Guangdong Tea Import and export company succeeded in following the similar method, creating a situation of large-scale export of large leaf Pu’er tea to Hong Kong, Macao, Southeast Asia and Japan.

1974年,云南省茶叶公司派人员去广东学习,回来后在云南试验成功,获得了更大的发展。

In 1974, Yunnan tea company sent personnel to study in Guangdong Province. After coming back, they successfully experimented in Yunnan Province and achieved greater development.

二十世纪七十年代,渥堆发酵新工艺研究成功,使得后发酵时间大大缩短,从而产生了普洱散茶和蒸压成的普洱茶“熟饼”。渥堆后发酵新工艺,使晒青茶在高温高湿的条件下,加上微生物的作用,进行快速的后发酵,从而形成了具有红浓汤色和陈香味的普洱茶。

In the 1970s, the new technology of Wotou pile fermentation was successfully researched, which greatly shortened the post fermentation time, and produced Pu’er loose tea and steamed Pu’er tea “cooked cake”. The new technology of wodui post fermentation enables the sun dried green tea to undergo rapid post fermentation under the conditions of high temperature and high humidity, and the effect of microorganisms, thus forming Pu’er tea with red and strong soup color and aging flavor.

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所以,普洱熟茶是1970年代才出现的,如果有人声称自己有五六十年代甚至更久远年代的普洱熟茶,那他一定是个骗子。

Therefore, Pu’er ripe tea only appeared in the 1970s. If someone claims that he has Pu’er ripe tea in the 1950s and 1960s or even more, he must be a liar.

普洱茶因“普洱”而得名,关于“普洱”这个地名的演变,也值得一说。在唐代的南诏国时,普洱归属银生府,叫做“步日”(“日”字的读音是e,第二声,与“洱”字的读音很接近。),到了明代洪武十六年(1384年)改称做“普耳”,万历年间定名叫做“普洱”。清朝雍正七年(1729年)设置普洱府,到了民国二年(1913年),普洱府被撤销,但是“普洱茶”这个名字一直传承至今。

Pu’er tea is named after “Pu’er”. The evolution of Pu’er is also worth mentioning. In the Nanzhao state of Tang Dynasty, Pu’er belonged to yinshengfu, which was called “Bu Ri” (the pronunciation of “Ri” is e, the second tone is very close to the pronunciation of “Er”) In the 16th year of Hongwu in the Ming Dynasty (1384), it was renamed “Pu’er”, and it was named “Pu’er” in Wanli period. In 1729, Pu’er house was set up in the seventh year of Yongzheng reign of the Qing Dynasty. In 1913, Pu’er house was abolished, but the name “Pu’er tea” has been handed down to this day.

未经允许不得转载:饮茶乎 » 普洱茶发展史

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