When making tea, according to different types of tea, different processing methods and different properties of tea, it is necessary to master the quantity of tea, the water temperature of tea making and the brewing time, which are commonly referred to as the “three elements of tea making”.
The amount of tea used is to put appropriate amount of tea in each cup or pot; the water temperature of tea making is to use boiling water of appropriate temperature to brew tea; brewing time has two meanings: one is the time required to soak tea to the appropriate concentration; the other is that some tea leaves need to be brewed several times, each time how much time.
1、 Quantity of tea put in
How much tea should be put into each tea making process depends on the type of tea, the size of tea sets and the habits of tea drinkers. The key is to master the proportion of tea and water. Generally speaking, each gram of tea can be soaked with 50-60 ml of water. Different teas are slightly different.
(1) When brewing oolong tea, the amount of tea added is more than double that of black tea and green tea, and the water consumption is reduced by half.
(2) For brewing black tea and green tea, the ratio of tea to water should be 1:50 ~ 60. Generally, a cup of dry tea with about 3 G is put in and 150 ~ 200 ml of boiling water is added.
(3) When brewing Pu’er tea, according to the size of tea utensils used, 5-10 grams of tea is added each time, and the amount of water is adjusted according to the amount of tea.
It should be pointed out that the age structure and tea drinking history of tea drinkers should be taken into account in the amount of tea consumed. Tea contains caffeine, and people with insomnia should drink it lightly. The old tea drinkers have a long history of drinking tea, and they like to drink stronger tea, and the amount of tea they put in should be appropriately increased; while the young tea drinkers generally like to drink lighter tea, so the amount of tea should be appropriately reduced.
2、 The temperature of tea making
2、 The water temperature of the tea to boil water to make tea, to use the fire in the shortest time to boil, rather than slow boil. After boiling water, it should be quickly picked up for brewing, so that the tea produced has the best aroma. If the water boils for a long time, it will become what the ancients call “old water”. The carbon dioxide dissolved in the water evaporates and the freshness and freshness of the tea soup will be greatly weakened. The water that has not yet boiled, which was called “tender water” by the ancients, is not suitable for making tea, because the water temperature is low, the effective ingredients in tea are not easy to bubble out, the fragrance of tea soup is low, and the tea is floating on the surface, which is not convenient to drink.
The specific temperature of tea making should be determined according to the tea products
(1) High grade green tea, especially the tender buds and leaves, can not be brewed with 100 ℃ boiling water, generally around 80 ℃ is the best. The more tender and green the tea, the lower the water temperature of brewing, so that the tea soup is bright green and fresh, which can also protect the vitamin C in tea from damage. When the temperature is too high, the tea is easy to be “hot cooked”, the tea soup turns yellow, the taste becomes bitter after caffeine extraction, and vitamin C is also destroyed in large quantities.
(2) All kinds of flower tea, black tea and low-grade green tea should be brewed with boiling water at 100 ℃. If the water temperature is low, the permeability is relatively poor, the effective ingredients in tea are difficult to bubble out, and the tea taste is weak.
(3) Oolong tea, Pu’er tea and Tuo tea need to be brewed at 100 ℃ because of the large amount of tea and the relatively coarse tea. And in order to maintain and improve the water temperature, it is necessary to warm the kettle before brewing.
Generally speaking, the higher the water temperature, the more effective ingredients released from tea, the thicker the tea soup. According to the analysis, the release amount of tea active components in 60 ℃ warm water is only 45% – 65% of that in 100 ℃ boiling water.
It is also important to note that when we say that high-grade green tea is suitable for brewing with water at 80 ℃, we mean that the water should be boiled to 100 ℃ and then cooled to about 80 ℃. It is not said that it can only be boiled to 80 ℃.
3、 Time and times of brewing
The time and frequency of tea brewing are quite different. Different tea, water temperature, amount of tea and tea drinking habits will cause such differences. Let’s start with the brewing time
(1) Use a teacup to soak ordinary black tea and green tea. Put about 3 grams of dry tea into each cup. First pour a small amount of boiling water, just soak the tea leaves, cover it for about 3 minutes, and then add boiling water to 70% to 70% full. You can drink it while it is hot. When drinking to the cup left about a third of the tea, and then add boiling water, so that the concentration of tea before and after the more uniform.
(2) When brewed with boiling water for 3-5 minutes, most of the effective ingredients are released and can be drunk.
(3) Most of Oolong tea is brewed in a small purple clay pot. The amount of Oolong tea is more than half a pot. The first bubble will be poured out in 1 minute. The reference time for subsequent brewing is: 1 minute and 15 seconds for the second bubble, 1 minute and 40 seconds for the third bubble, and 2 minutes and 15 seconds for the fourth bubble. Gradually increasing the time is to make the concentration of tea before and after more uniform.
As for the number of brewing, it needs to be determined according to the release degree of the contents of tea in the tea soup. Only when the vitamins, amino acids, tea polyphenols, caffeine, soluble sugar and other effective substances in tea are brewed and released, the tea soup will have a fresh and mellow taste.
In general, the soluble matter can be released about 55% after one brewing, about 30% at the second time, 10% at the third time, and 1% – 3% at the fourth time. About 80% of the nutrients in tea, such as vitamin C, amino acids, tea polyphenols, caffeine, etc., are stimulated in the first brewing. After the second brewing, the release amount will reach about 95%, and there will be little left in the third brewing. The aroma and taste of the first bubble is fresh and mellow, the second bubble is thick but not fresh, the third bubble is as light as the taste, the fourth bubble is less, after five or six bubbles, it is similar to boiled water.
Therefore, most teas should be brewed two or three times. Oolong tea can be brewed five times, while white tea can only be brewed twice.
In fact, any kind of tea should not be soaked for too long or too many brewing times. It is better to drink immediately. Otherwise, the beneficial ingredients will be oxidized after a long time, which will not only reduce the nutritional value, but also produce harmful substances.