资深茶艺师分享“泡茶三要素”,看了才知道自己错了好多!

资深茶艺师分享“泡茶三要素”,看了才知道自己错了好多!插图

泡茶时,根据不同的茶类,不同的加工方法和不同的茶性,需要掌握好投茶的数量、泡茶的水温和冲泡的时间,也就是大家常说的“泡茶三要素”。

When making tea, according to different types of tea, different processing methods and different properties of tea, it is necessary to master the quantity of tea, the water temperature of tea making and the brewing time, which are commonly referred to as the “three elements of tea making”.

茶叶用量就是每杯或每壶中放适当分量的茶叶;泡茶水温就是用适当温度的开水去冲泡茶叶;冲泡时间则有两层意思:一是指将茶叶泡到适当的浓度所需的时间,二是有些茶叶要冲泡数次,每次需要泡多少时间。

The amount of tea used is to put appropriate amount of tea in each cup or pot; the water temperature of tea making is to use boiling water of appropriate temperature to brew tea; brewing time has two meanings: one is the time required to soak tea to the appropriate concentration; the other is that some tea leaves need to be brewed several times, each time how much time.

一、投茶的数量

1、 Quantity of tea put in

每一泡茶,投茶量应该是多少,需要根据茶叶的种类、茶具的大小和饮茶者的习惯来定。关键是要掌握茶与水的比例,一般来说,每1克茶叶可以用50~60毫升的水来泡,不同的茶,又略有不同。

How much tea should be put into each tea making process depends on the type of tea, the size of tea sets and the habits of tea drinkers. The key is to master the proportion of tea and water. Generally speaking, each gram of tea can be soaked with 50-60 ml of water. Different teas are slightly different.

(1)冲泡乌龙茶,投茶量要比一般的红茶和绿茶增加一倍以上,同时所用的水量要减少一半。

(1) When brewing oolong tea, the amount of tea added is more than double that of black tea and green tea, and the water consumption is reduced by half.

资深茶艺师分享“泡茶三要素”,看了才知道自己错了好多!插图1

(2)冲泡红茶、绿茶,茶与水的比例,以1:50~60为宜,通常情况下,一杯投放3克左右的干茶,加入沸水150~200毫升即可。

(2) For brewing black tea and green tea, the ratio of tea to water should be 1:50 ~ 60. Generally, a cup of dry tea with about 3 G is put in and 150 ~ 200 ml of boiling water is added.

(3)冲泡普洱茶,根据所用的茶器大小,每次投茶5~10克,水量则根据投茶量的多少去适当调节。

(3) When brewing Pu’er tea, according to the size of tea utensils used, 5-10 grams of tea is added each time, and the amount of water is adjusted according to the amount of tea.

需要指出的是,投茶量还要考虑到饮茶者的年龄结构和饮茶历史。茶叶中含有咖啡碱,失眠的人应该饮得清淡。老年茶客,饮茶年限长,喜欢喝较浓的茶,投茶量适当增多;年轻的茶客,则普遍喜爱饮用较淡的茶,投茶量就应该适当减少。

It should be pointed out that the age structure and tea drinking history of tea drinkers should be taken into account in the amount of tea consumed. Tea contains caffeine, and people with insomnia should drink it lightly. The old tea drinkers have a long history of drinking tea, and they like to drink stronger tea, and the amount of tea they put in should be appropriately increased; while the young tea drinkers generally like to drink lighter tea, so the amount of tea should be appropriately reduced.

二、泡茶的水温

2、 The temperature of tea making

烧水来泡茶时,要用大火在最短的时间内烧开,而不要用文火慢煮。水烧开后,应该快速提起来冲泡,这样泡出的茶,香气最佳。如果水沸腾的时间过长,就会成为古人所说的“水老”,溶于水中的二氧化碳挥发殆尽,泡出的茶汤鲜爽味大大减弱。而尚未沸腾的水,古人称之为“水嫩”,也不适合用来泡茶,因为水温偏低,茶叶中的有效成分不易泡出来,茶汤的香味低淡,而茶叶又浮在表面,很不方便饮用。

2、 The water temperature of the tea to boil water to make tea, to use the fire in the shortest time to boil, rather than slow boil. After boiling water, it should be quickly picked up for brewing, so that the tea produced has the best aroma. If the water boils for a long time, it will become what the ancients call “old water”. The carbon dioxide dissolved in the water evaporates and the freshness and freshness of the tea soup will be greatly weakened. The water that has not yet boiled, which was called “tender water” by the ancients, is not suitable for making tea, because the water temperature is low, the effective ingredients in tea are not easy to bubble out, the fragrance of tea soup is low, and the tea is floating on the surface, which is not convenient to drink.

资深茶艺师分享“泡茶三要素”,看了才知道自己错了好多!插图2

具体的泡茶水温,要根据冲泡的茶品来决定:

The specific temperature of tea making should be determined according to the tea products

(1)高级绿茶,特别是芽叶细嫩的,不能用100℃的沸水来冲泡,一般以80℃左右为最佳。茶叶越嫩、越绿,冲泡的水温就要越低,这样泡出的茶汤嫩绿明亮,滋味鲜爽,也能很好的保护茶叶中的维生素C免遭破坏。温度过高,茶叶容易被“烫熟”,茶汤变黄,咖啡碱浸出后滋味变苦,维生素C也被大量破坏。

(1) High grade green tea, especially the tender buds and leaves, can not be brewed with 100 ℃ boiling water, generally around 80 ℃ is the best. The more tender and green the tea, the lower the water temperature of brewing, so that the tea soup is bright green and fresh, which can also protect the vitamin C in tea from damage. When the temperature is too high, the tea is easy to be “hot cooked”, the tea soup turns yellow, the taste becomes bitter after caffeine extraction, and vitamin C is also destroyed in large quantities.

(2)各种花茶、红茶和中低档的绿茶,要用100℃的沸水来冲泡。如果水温偏低,渗透性就比较差,茶叶中的有效成分就难以泡出,茶味显得淡薄。

(2) All kinds of flower tea, black tea and low-grade green tea should be brewed with boiling water at 100 ℃. If the water temperature is low, the permeability is relatively poor, the effective ingredients in tea are difficult to bubble out, and the tea taste is weak.

(3)乌龙茶、普洱茶和沱茶,因为投茶量较多,而且茶叶相对粗老,也需要用100℃的沸水来冲泡。而且为了保持和提高水温,还需要在冲泡前进行温壶。

(3) Oolong tea, Pu’er tea and Tuo tea need to be brewed at 100 ℃ because of the large amount of tea and the relatively coarse tea. And in order to maintain and improve the water temperature, it is necessary to warm the kettle before brewing.

一般来说,水温越高,茶叶的有效成分就释放得越多,茶汤就越浓。据分析,60℃的温水中茶叶有效成分的释放量只相当于100℃的沸水中释放量的45%~65%。

Generally speaking, the higher the water temperature, the more effective ingredients released from tea, the thicker the tea soup. According to the analysis, the release amount of tea active components in 60 ℃ warm water is only 45% – 65% of that in 100 ℃ boiling water.

还需要特别说明的一点是,高级绿茶我们说适合用80℃的水来冲泡,是指要将水烧到100℃沸腾,再冷却到80℃左右,而不是说只要烧到80℃就可以。

It is also important to note that when we say that high-grade green tea is suitable for brewing with water at 80 ℃, we mean that the water should be boiled to 100 ℃ and then cooled to about 80 ℃. It is not said that it can only be boiled to 80 ℃.

资深茶艺师分享“泡茶三要素”,看了才知道自己错了好多!插图3

三、冲泡的时间和次数

3、 Time and times of brewing

茶叶冲泡的时间和次数,差异比较大,不同的茶叶、水温、投茶量和饮茶习惯,都会造成这种差异。先说冲泡时间:

The time and frequency of tea brewing are quite different. Different tea, water temperature, amount of tea and tea drinking habits will cause such differences. Let’s start with the brewing time

(1)用茶杯泡饮一般的红茶和绿茶,每一杯投入干茶3克左右,先倒入少量的开水,刚好浸没茶叶,盖上盖子大约3分钟,然后再加入开水至七八成满,就可以趁热饮用啦。当喝到杯中还剩三分之一左右的茶汤时,再加开水,这样可以使前后茶汤的浓度比较均匀。

(1) Use a teacup to soak ordinary black tea and green tea. Put about 3 grams of dry tea into each cup. First pour a small amount of boiling water, just soak the tea leaves, cover it for about 3 minutes, and then add boiling water to 70% to 70% full. You can drink it while it is hot. When drinking to the cup left about a third of the tea, and then add boiling water, so that the concentration of tea before and after the more uniform.

(2)冲泡颗粒细小、揉捻充分的红碎茶与绿碎茶,用沸水冲泡3~5分钟后,有效成分大部分被释放,此时就可以饮用啦。

(2) When brewed with boiling water for 3-5 minutes, most of the effective ingredients are released and can be drunk.

(3)冲泡乌龙茶大多使用小型的紫砂壶,乌龙茶投茶量较多,差不多可以到半壶。第一泡1分钟就要倒出来,后续冲泡的参考时间是:第二泡1分15秒,第三泡1分40秒,第四泡2分15秒 。逐渐增加时间是为了使得前后茶汤的浓度比较均匀。

(3) Most of Oolong tea is brewed in a small purple clay pot. The amount of Oolong tea is more than half a pot. The first bubble will be poured out in 1 minute. The reference time for subsequent brewing is: 1 minute and 15 seconds for the second bubble, 1 minute and 40 seconds for the third bubble, and 2 minutes and 15 seconds for the fourth bubble. Gradually increasing the time is to make the concentration of tea before and after more uniform.

资深茶艺师分享“泡茶三要素”,看了才知道自己错了好多!插图4

至于冲泡的次数,需要根据每一次冲泡时茶叶的内含物质在茶汤中的释放程度来确定。只有当茶叶中的维生素、氨基酸、茶多酚、咖啡碱、可溶性糖等有效物质被沸水冲泡释放出来后,茶汤喝起来才会有鲜爽醇和的口感。

As for the number of brewing, it needs to be determined according to the release degree of the contents of tea in the tea soup. Only when the vitamins, amino acids, tea polyphenols, caffeine, soluble sugar and other effective substances in tea are brewed and released, the tea soup will have a fresh and mellow taste.

通常情况下,茶叶冲泡一次,可溶性的物质就能释放出55%左右,第二次约30%左右,第三次约10%,第四次就只有1%~3%了。茶叶中的营养成分,比如维生素C、氨基酸、茶多酚、咖啡碱等,第一次冲泡,就有80%左右被激发,第二次冲泡后,释放量就会达到95%左右,第三次就所剩无几了。香气滋味也是头泡香味鲜醇,二泡浓而不鲜,三泡香尽味淡,四泡滋味较少,五六泡以后就近似于白开水。

In general, the soluble matter can be released about 55% after one brewing, about 30% at the second time, 10% at the third time, and 1% – 3% at the fourth time. About 80% of the nutrients in tea, such as vitamin C, amino acids, tea polyphenols, caffeine, etc., are stimulated in the first brewing. After the second brewing, the release amount will reach about 95%, and there will be little left in the third brewing. The aroma and taste of the first bubble is fresh and mellow, the second bubble is thick but not fresh, the third bubble is as light as the taste, the fourth bubble is less, after five or six bubbles, it is similar to boiled water.

所以,大多数的茶叶还是以冲泡二三次为好,乌龙茶可以冲泡到五次,白茶大多只能泡两次。

Therefore, most teas should be brewed two or three times. Oolong tea can be brewed five times, while white tea can only be brewed twice.

实际上,任何品种的茶叶都不宜浸泡过久或者冲泡次数过多,最好是即泡即饮,否则时间过久,有益成分被氧化后,不但营养价值降低,还会泡出有害物质。

In fact, any kind of tea should not be soaked for too long or too many brewing times. It is better to drink immediately. Otherwise, the beneficial ingredients will be oxidized after a long time, which will not only reduce the nutritional value, but also produce harmful substances.

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