茶多酚是什么?

茶多酚是什么?插图

茶多酚,俗称茶单宁、茶鞣质,是茶叶中各种酚类物质的总称。

Tea polyphenol, commonly known as tea tannin and tea tannin, is the general name of various phenolic substances in tea.

茶叶鲜叶中的多酚类物质以类黄酮物质为主,包括:儿茶素、黄酮醇、花青素和酚酸。不同的茶树,不同的季节,以及茶叶的老嫩程度不同,茶多酚的含量也有所差异。含量低的不到20%,含量高的可以达到40%。

Flavonoids are the main polyphenols in tea leaves, including catechin, flavonol, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The content of tea polyphenols is different in different tea plants, different seasons, and the degree of tea tenderness. The low content is less than 20%, and the high content can reach 40%.

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儿茶素是茶多酚的主要成分,含量是茶多酚总量的50%~80%。

Catechin is the main component of tea polyphenols, the content is 50% ~ 80% of the total tea polyphenols.

黄酮醇的含量约为1%~4%,含量较低,它具有芹菜素的基本结构。

The content of flavonol is about 1% ~ 4%, which has the basic structure of apigenin.

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花青素是飞燕草花青素、青芙蓉花青素以及它们的糖甙的总称。花青素主要存在于幼嫩的芽叶中,随着芽叶的生长,它会转化为儿茶素和黄酮醇,所以长大后的茶叶,花青素含量非常低。

Anthocyanins are the general name of the anthocyanins of Delphinium, hibiscus viridis and their glycosides. Anthocyanins mainly exist in young buds and leaves. With the growth of buds and leaves, they will be converted into catechins and flavonols. Therefore, the content of anthocyanins in the grown tea is very low.

酚酸包含的物质种类也很多,其中的绿原酸的含量最高,可以达到2%~4%。

Phenolic acid contains many kinds of substances, among which the content of chlorogenic acid is the highest, which can reach 2% ~ 4%.

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茶多酚对于茶的色、香、味有非常重要的影响,它具有苦涩味,是很重要的滋味物质。茶多酚在茶叶加工的过程中会发生一系列的水解、异构、氧化、聚合反应,影响茶叶的浓强度、鲜爽度和醇和度。

Tea polyphenols have a very important influence on the color, aroma and taste of tea. It has a bitter and astringent taste and is a very important taste substance. In the process of tea processing, a series of hydrolysis, isomerization, oxidation and polymerization of tea polyphenols will occur, which will affect the strength, freshness and alcohol content of tea.

茶多酚含量的多少对绿茶的品质有十分明显的影响,含量适中的鲜叶制出的成品绿茶品质比较好,滋味浓而且鲜爽;其中的脂型儿茶素在一定限度内所占的比例较大时,所制出的绿茶品质会进一步提高。

The content of tea polyphenols has a very obvious effect on the quality of green tea. The green tea with moderate content of fresh leaves has better quality, strong taste and freshness; when the proportion of fat catechins in a certain limit is large, the quality of green tea will be further improved.

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“儿茶素品质指数”是茶叶品质好坏的一个标志。愈幼嫩的鲜叶,脂型儿茶素的含量越高,品质越好;成熟老化后,脂型儿茶素就会减少,茶叶品质相应下降。

“Catechin quality index” is a symbol of tea quality. The more tender the fresh leaves are, the higher the content of fat catechins is, the better the quality of tea is; after ripening and aging, the content of fat catechins will decrease and the quality of tea will decrease accordingly.

茶多酚的含量对红茶的影响更为明显,红茶的红色叶底和红亮汤色就是茶多酚的氧化聚合产物所形成的。儿茶素含量高的鲜叶,制成红茶后,茶黄素含量较高,红茶品质优良。

The content of tea polyphenols has more obvious effect on black tea. The red leaf bottom and red bright color of black tea are formed by the oxidative polymerization products of tea polyphenols. The content of theaflavins in fresh leaves with high content of catechins is high, and the quality of black tea is excellent.

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有一部分绿茶、乌龙茶的橙黄汤色也与茶多酚的初级氧化物有关,茶多酚的氧化物与氨基酸结合后能散发出芳香,增加茶叶的香气。

The orange color of some green tea and oolong tea is also related to the primary oxide of tea polyphenols. The oxidation of tea polyphenols and amino acids can emit fragrance and increase the aroma of tea.

黄酮类物质能够溶于水,对茶汤的汤色和滋味都有重要的影响。

Flavonoids can be dissolved in water and have an important influence on the color and taste of tea soup.

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花青素具有明显的苦味,而且能够溶于水中,花青素含量多的鲜叶加工成绿茶,往往汤色深暗,滋味发苦,叶底靛青。当150毫升的茶汤中含有15毫克的花青素时,就有明显的苦味。

Anthocyanins have obvious bitter taste and can be dissolved in water. The fresh leaves with high anthocyanins content can be processed into green tea, which often has dark color, bitter taste and indigo at the bottom of leaves. When 150 ml of tea contains 15 mg of anthocyanins, there is an obvious bitterness.

一般来说,大叶种茶树鲜叶中含有的茶多酚比较多,光照充足的茶树鲜叶所含茶多酚较多,夏茶的茶多酚比春茶多。

Generally speaking, the tea polyphenols in the fresh leaves of large leaf tea plants are more than that in the fresh leaves of tea plants with sufficient sunlight, and the tea polyphenols in summer tea are more than those in spring tea.

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