野生茶和栽培茶有什么区别?

野生茶和栽培茶有什么区别?插图

茶树的形态特征由所处的生长环境来决定。位于热带雨林中的茶树,形成喜爱高温高湿、耐酸耐阴的乔木或小乔木大叶型形态;在北亚热带气候条件下,茶树耐寒耐旱,形态朝灌木矮丛小叶方向变化;而在南、中亚热带气候条件下,茶树的形态特征和生理特性就介于以上两种之间。

The morphological characteristics of tea plants are determined by their growing environment. In the tropical rain forest, the tea tree forms the tree or small tree big leaf shape which likes high temperature and humidity, acid and shade resistance; under the north subtropical climate condition, the tea tree is cold and drought resistant, and its morphology changes towards the direction of Bush Bush Bush small leaf; under the South and middle subtropical climate conditions, the morphological and physiological characteristics of tea tree are between the above two kinds.

野生茶和栽培茶有什么区别?插图1

茶树从野生型到栽培型的演化,形态特征会发生一系列的变化,主要表现在:树型由乔木型变成小乔木型和灌木型,树干由中轴变为合轴,叶片由大叶到小叶,树冠由大到小,花瓣由丛瓣到单瓣,果壳由厚到薄,种皮由粗糙到光滑等,这一演化过程是不可逆转的。

A series of changes will take place in the morphological characteristics of tea tree from wild type to cultivated type, which are mainly manifested in the following aspects: tree type changes from arbor type to small tree type and shrub type, trunk changes from axis to axis, leaf from large leaf to small leaf, crown from large to small, petal from clump to single petal, fruit shell from thick to thin, seed coat from rough to smooth, etc.

野生茶和栽培茶有什么区别?插图2

现在,野生型和栽培型茶树都有。遇到一株茶树,要判断是野生茶树还是栽培茶树,它们之间的一些不同之处可以帮助你辨别。

Now, there are both wild and cultivated tea plants. Encounter a tea tree, to judge whether it is wild or cultivated tea, some of the differences between them can help you distinguish.

(1)看树的整体形态:野生型茶树是乔木或者小乔木,树的生长姿态大多是直立的;栽培型茶树是小乔木或者低矮的灌木,生长姿态多是张开出去的。

(1) Look at the overall shape of the tree: the wild type tea tree is a tree or small tree, and the growth posture of the tree is mostly upright; the cultivated tea tree is a small tree or low bush, and the growth posture is mostly open.

野生茶和栽培茶有什么区别?插图3

(2)看叶片:野生型茶树的叶片长度在10~25厘米,厚而脆,边缘有稀疏的钝齿;栽培型茶树叶片长度在6~15厘米,厚而软,边缘有锐利的叶齿。

(2) Look at the leaves: the length of wild tea leaves is 10-25 cm, thick and crisp, with sparse blunt teeth on the edge; the length of cultivated tea leaves is 6-15 cm, thick and soft, with sharp teeth on the edge.

(3)看越冬的芽叶:野生型茶树的越冬芽鳞片是3~5枚,栽培型茶树的越冬芽鳞片是2~3枚。

(3) Look at the overwintering buds and leaves: the overwintering bud scales of wild tea plants are 3-5, and those of cultivated tea plants are 2-3.

(4)看花冠:野生型茶树的花冠直径4~8厘米,花瓣有8~15枚;栽培型茶树的花冠直径2~4厘米,花瓣有5~8枚。

(4) Look at the corolla: the diameter of the corolla of wild type tea plant is 4-8 cm, and there are 8-15 petals; the diameter of corolla of cultivated tea plant is 2-4 cm, with 5-8 petals.

野生茶和栽培茶有什么区别?插图4

以上四点是通过外在特征来辨别,内在方面,野生型茶树和栽培型茶树区别更为明显,主要是以下几个方面:

The above four points are identified by external characteristics. In the internal aspect, the difference between wild type and cultivated type is more obvious, mainly in the following aspects:

(1)花粉:野生型茶树的花粉极赤轴比大于0.8,钙含量大于10%;栽培型茶树花粉极赤轴比小于0.8,钙含量小于5%。

(1) Pollen: wild type tea plant pollen extreme red axis ratio is greater than 0.8, calcium content is more than 10%; cultivated tea plant pollen extreme red axis ratio is less than 0.8, calcium content is less than 5%.

野生茶和栽培茶有什么区别?插图5

(2)生化成分:野生型茶树氨基酸、茶多酚含量较低,苯丙氨酸含量较高;栽培型茶树氨基酸含量高,茶多酚含量在20%~40%,苯丙氨酸含量较低。

(2) Biochemical components: wild type tea plants had lower contents of amino acids and tea polyphenols, but higher contents of phenylalanine; cultivated tea plants had higher contents of amino acids, tea polyphenols and phenylalanine.

野生茶和栽培茶有什么区别?插图6

(3)萜烯指数:野生型茶树多在0.7以上,栽培型茶树多在0.7以下。

(3) Terpene index: wild tea plants were more than 0.7, while cultivated tea plants were mostly below 0.7.

(4)染色体核型:野生型茶树以2A为主,对称性较高;栽培型茶树以2B为主,对称性较低。

(4) Chromosome karyotype: wild type tea plants are mainly 2a with high symmetry; cultivated tea plants are mainly 2B with low symmetry.

未经允许不得转载:饮茶乎 » 野生茶和栽培茶有什么区别?

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