茶的原产地到底是哪里?

茶的原产地到底是哪里?插图

历史上的很长一段时期,全世界都一致认为茶的原产地是中国。瑞典科学家林奈在1753年出版的《植物种志》中,将茶树的学名定为Camellia sinensis L.,“sinensis”在拉丁文中的意思就是中国。

For a long time in history, the world agreed that the origin of tea was China. In 1753, a Swedish scientist named Camellia sinensis L. in the flora of plants published by Swedish scientist Linnaeus, which means China in Latin.

但在1824年,英国人布鲁斯在印度阿萨姆的Sadiya发现野生茶树后,关于茶的原产地便产生了分歧,目前主要有四种观点:

However, in 1824, Bruce, an Englishman, discovered the wild tea plant in sadiya, Assam, India. There were four opinions on the origin of tea

(1)茶原产于中国。从1813年法国学者Ganive所著的《植物自然分类》开始,后续美国学者Walsh的《茶的历史及其秘诀》、英国学者Willson的《中国西南部游记》,以及《植物科学》、《论野生茶树的进化因素》和日本茶树原产地研究会等,都认为茶树原产于中国。

(1) Tea is native to China. Starting from the natural classification of plants written by French scholar ganive in 1813, the following American scholar Walsh’s the history and secret of tea, the British scholar Willison’s travel notes to southwest China, plant science, on the evolutionary factors of wild tea plants, and the Japanese tea origin research association, etc., all believed that tea plants originated in China.

(2)茶原产于印度。1824年布鲁斯在阿萨姆发现大茶树后,1838年,他又报道了在印度108处发现了野生大茶树,于是宣称茶树原产于印度。随后,英国学者在《阿萨姆之茶叶》、《茶商指南》、《茶》以及1911年版的《日本大词典》中,均认为茶树原产于印度。

(2) Tea is native to India. In 1824, Bruce discovered a large tea plant in Assam, and in 1838, he reported the discovery of a large wild tea plant in 108 places in India, thus claiming that the tea plant originated in India. Later, British scholars in Assam’s tea, tea merchant’s guide, tea and the Japanese dictionary in 1911 all believed that tea trees originated in India.

茶的原产地到底是哪里?插图1

(3)茶原产于东南亚。理由是缅甸东部、泰国北部、越南、中国云南、印度阿萨姆这一广大区域内的自然条件非常适宜茶树的生长和繁衍。

(3) Tea is native to Southeast Asia. The reason is that the natural conditions in eastern Myanmar, northern Thailand, Vietnam, Yunnan of China and Assam of India are very suitable for the growth and reproduction of tea trees.

(4)茶树原产地二元论。以印尼学者C.Stuart为代表,认为大叶茶原产于中国的四川、云南及越南、缅甸、泰国、印度;小叶茶原产于中国东部和东南部。

(4) Dualism of tea origin. Represented by Indonesian scholar C. Stuart, it is believed that the large leaf tea originated from Sichuan, Yunnan, Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand and India in China, while the small leaf tea originated in the East and southeast of China.

尽管存有争议,但大多数人还是认为茶树原产于中国。1922年,吴觉农在《茶树原产地》一文中,论述了神农氏以茶作药、中国历代对茶树的栽培和利用以及现代茶树的分布状况等,提出茶树原产于中国。并坚定地宣称:“谁也不能否认中华是茶的原产地。”

Despite the controversy, most people believe that the tea plant originated in China. In 1922, Wu juenong discussed the use of tea as medicine by Shennong family, the cultivation and utilization of tea plants in Chinese dynasties, and the distribution of modern tea plants. It was suggested that tea plants originated in China. And firmly declared: “no one can deny that China is the origin of tea.”

新中国成立后,对茶树的科学研究和分析,为茶树原产于中国提供了更为可靠和更具说服力的依据。

After the founding of the people’s Republic of China, the scientific research and analysis of tea plants provided a more reliable and convincing basis for the origin of tea plants in China.

茶的原产地到底是哪里?插图2

(1)中国是最早利用和栽培茶树的国家。在2000多年前,茶就作为祭品供人们利用了。陆羽在《茶经》里面记载,唐代已经有八个茶区,有了大规模的茶园。北宋时有35个州、南宋时有66个州产茶叶。

(1) China is the first country to utilize and cultivate tea. Tea was used as a sacrifice more than 2000 years ago. Lu Yu recorded in the book of tea that there were eight tea areas in the Tang Dynasty, and there were large-scale tea gardens. There were 35 states in the Northern Song Dynasty and 66 states in the Southern Song Dynasty.

(2)中国西南部山茶属植物最多。据统计,全世界有山茶科植物23个属380多个种,中国有15个属260余种。在云南、广西、广东、贵州的北纬25度线两侧,集中分布有数量众多的山茶科植物,这是原产地植物区系的重要标志。

(2) Camellia is the most abundant plant in Southwest China. According to statistics, there are more than 380 species in 23 genera of Theaceae in the world, and more than 260 species in 15 genera in China. In Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong and Guizhou, there are a large number of Camellia plants on both sides of the 25 degree north latitude line, which is an important symbol of the flora of the origin.

(3)中国发现野生大茶树最早最多。早在1700多年前,我国就发现了野生大茶树。据不完全统计,全国已有10个省、市(区)200多处发现野生大茶树。云南省树干直径在1米以上的大茶树就有十多处。

(3) The wild tea plants were discovered in China. As early as 1700 years ago, large wild tea plants were found in China. According to incomplete statistics, more than 200 wild tea plants have been found in more than 10 provinces and cities (districts). In Yunnan Province, there are more than 10 large tea trees with trunk diameter more than 1 meter.

茶的原产地到底是哪里?插图3

(4)中国茶树种质资源遗传多样性最丰富。

(4) The genetic diversity of tea germplasm resources in China is the most abundant.

(5)云南茶组植物的种最多、变型最丰富、与山茶科植物的亲缘关系最近。云南茶树在系统发育上具有从原始的形态结构到进化的次生形态结构的各种类型,形成了连续性变异,如树形、高度、叶片形态、花器官等。在茶组植物的34个种中,云南有21个种,3个变种,占茶种总数的66.7%。同时,云南的地理环境较为特殊,兼备寒带、温带、热带三带气候,素有“植物王国”之称。

(5) Yunnan has the most species and varieties, and has the closest relationship with Theaceae. Yunnan tea plants have various types of phylogeny from primitive morphological structure to evolutionary secondary morphological structure, forming continuous variation, such as tree shape, height, leaf morphology, flower organ, etc. There are 21 species and 3 varieties in Yunnan, accounting for 66.7% of the total tea species. At the same time, Yunnan’s geographical environment is relatively special, with the climate of cold zone, temperate zone and tropical zone, known as “plant kingdom”.

进一步推定,云南是茶树的地理起源和栽培起源中心。

It is further inferred that Yunnan is the center of geographical origin and cultivation origin of tea.

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