建水紫陶独一无二的湿坯绘刻填彩装饰工艺

建水紫陶独一无二的湿坯绘刻填彩装饰工艺插图
图:王志平作品

建水崇尚儒家文化,自来多有文人墨客。这些文人墨客日常艺术的一部分,就是以陶为纸,将自己的艺术思想表达于陶坯之上。通过湿坯绘刻填彩这项装饰工艺,使得建水紫陶在中国陶瓷装饰中显得独一无二。

Jianshui advocates Confucian culture, and there are many literati since then. Part of the daily art of these literati is to take pottery as paper and express their artistic ideas on pottery. Through the decoration technology of wet block painting and filling color, Jianshui purple pottery is unique in Chinese ceramic decoration.

建水紫陶湿坯颜色呈橘红,也有白色陶坯。装饰时,大多数作者是在陶坯上题字作画,这些书画作品多为传统图案,且大多数题材寓意吉祥,比如凤穿牡丹、喜鹊登梅、连年有鱼、蜂蝶戏花、榴开百子等等。

Jianshui purple pottery green color is orange red, there are also white pottery. When decorating, most of the authors inscribe and paint on pottery. Most of these paintings and calligraphy works are traditional patterns, and most of the themes imply auspiciousness, such as Phoenix wearing peony, magpie climbing plum, fish in successive years, bees and butterflies playing with flowers, durian blossoming, etc.

画作完成后,会配上与画作搭配的不同书法体的唐诗宋词、名人绝句、断简残贴等,整个装饰集金石、书法、美术于其上,既有实用价值,又有审美情趣,因而有工艺美术陶之名。

After the painting is completed, it will be accompanied with Tang and Song poetry, celebrity quatrains, broken bamboo scraps and other calligraphy styles. The whole decoration integrates gold and stone, calligraphy and art on it. It has both practical value and aesthetic taste, so it has the name of Arts and crafts pottery.

接下来就是关键的刻、填步骤,装饰效果能否完整呈现,整个作品的品质能否得到更大的提升,关键就在于刻填工艺是否做得到位,一件作品的价值区别也在于此。

The next step is the key steps of engraving and filling. Whether the decoration effect can be completely presented and whether the quality of the whole work can be greatly improved depends on whether the carving and filling technology can be done well, and the value difference of a work also lies in this.

“刻”是指工艺师(大多数是细心的女工艺师)借助一种名叫“足刀”的工具沿着书画的边缘进行镂刻,将书画覆盖部分的坯土挖去,这道工序存在几个难点:

“Carving” refers to that craftsmen (most of them are careful female craftsmen) carve along the edge of calligraphy and painting with the help of a tool called “foot knife”. There are several difficulties in this process

第一,刻的过程中要保持陶坯在一定的湿度,因此刻的过程中要不断的给陶坯喷水,休息的间断要及时用塑料膜包裹陶坯,防止陶坯晾干。有的作品需要雕刻很长的时间,大大增加了保湿的难度。

First, we should keep the ceramic body in a certain humidity in the process of engraving, because at this moment, we should constantly spray water on the ceramic body, and we should use plastic film to wrap the ceramic body in time to prevent the ceramic body from drying. Some works need carving for a long time, which greatly increases the difficulty of moisturizing.

第二,由于陶坯是湿坯,而雕刻需要用力,因此雕刻的过程中陶坯会有变形的危险,这就要求工艺师在雕刻过程中注意力度的掌控,既要将书画作品雕刻到位,又要避免陶坯变形。

Second, because the ceramic blank is wet, and the carving needs to be hard, so the process of carving will have the danger of deformation. This requires the craftsman to pay attention to the control of the carving process, not only to carve the calligraphy and painting works in place, but also to avoid the deformation of the ceramic blank.

第三,还是关于力度掌控的难点,不同的器型以及同一个器型的不同部位,陶坯的厚度不相同,用力多大、刻到哪一个深度,很大程度上凭借工艺师长期积累的经验来判断,尤其是陶坯较薄的部位,用力过大,容易刻穿陶坯,用力过小,就无法进行接下来的彩填。

Third, it is still difficult to control the strength. The thickness of ceramic body varies with different types and different parts of the same type. To a large extent, the strength and the depth of engraving depend on the long-term accumulated experience of the craftsman. Especially for the thin parts of the ceramic body, if the force is too large, it is easy to carve through the ceramic blank, and if the force is too small, the subsequent color filling can not be carried out.

第四,关于书画作品的完整表达。有些画作非常复杂,要求工艺师将画作的每一道墨迹都刻出来,同时在挖泥的时候,不能挖断墨痕,导致书画残缺不全。尤其是有些画作里有鸟类的羽毛、人物的毛发、蟋蟀的触角等等非常细微的部位,都需要将毛发、触角一丝一线的表现出来,蟋蟀的触角、蟋蟀的腿上还有一些拐角的地方,也需要完整并富有神韵的雕刻。一不小心挖断墨痕,就算补上,产品出来后也会有痕迹,因此可以说挖断墨痕,就表示一件作品废了。

Fourth, the complete expression of painting and calligraphy works. Some paintings are very complicated, requiring craftsmen to carve out every ink mark of the paintings. At the same time, when digging mud, they can’t cut the ink marks, resulting in incomplete calligraphy and painting. In particular, some paintings have bird feathers, human hair, cricket’s antennae and other very subtle parts, which need to show the hair and tentacles. There are also some corners on the cricket’s antennae and cricket’s legs, which also need complete and vivid carving. If you break the ink mark carelessly, even if you make it up, there will be traces after the product comes out. Therefore, if you cut the ink mark, it means that a work is useless.

建水紫陶独一无二的湿坯绘刻填彩装饰工艺插图1

阴刻完成后,接下来就是填泥,分为填单色泥和填彩色泥。

After the engraving, the next step is to fill mud, which is divided into filling monochrome clay and filling colored clay.

填单色泥是指在橘红色或者白色的陶坯上,为雕刻出来的书画填入白色或黑色的泥,汉字和少量简单的画作会填单色的泥,而复杂的画作就会填彩色的泥,操作的过程称为填彩,完成的作品称为彩填。

Filling monochromatic clay refers to filling the carved calligraphy and painting with white or black mud on the orange or white pottery. Chinese characters and a small number of simple paintings will be filled with monochromatic mud, while complex paintings will be filled with colored mud. The operation process is called filling color, and the completed works are called color filling.

彩填需要工艺师根据书画作者的要求,在作者的指导下,用天然泥料配置出不同颜色的彩色泥料,分别填入画作的不同部位。如果彩填一幅荷花图,那么荷叶是一种颜色、叶茎是一种颜色、花瓣是一种颜色、花瓣颜色还要求有过度,这对填彩工艺师的要求非常高。有的工艺师能够根据自己的理解填出符合要求的效果,大多数的工艺师需要在书画作者或专业美术人员的指导下填彩。

According to the requirements of the calligraphers and painters and under the guidance of the authors, the craftsmen should use natural clay to make colored clay of different colors and fill in different parts of the painting. If you fill in a lotus picture in color, the lotus leaf is a color, the leaf stem is a color, the petal is a color, and the petal color is too much, which requires the color filling technologist to be very high. Some craftsmen can fill in the required effect according to their own understanding, while most of them need to fill in the color under the guidance of calligraphers and painters or professional artists.

建水紫陶独一无二的湿坯绘刻填彩装饰工艺插图2

填彩的过程中也有几个难点:

There are also several difficulties in the process of color filling

第一,彩泥的湿度和陶坯的湿度不同,收缩率也不一样,因此要在填泥的过程中一边填一边压,使得彩泥和陶坯完全粘合在一起,这个过程需要反复多次,才能达到需要的效果。

First, the humidity of the color mud is different from that of the ceramic body, and the shrinkage rate is also different. Therefore, it is necessary to fill and press the clay during the filling process, so that the color mud and the ceramic body are completely bonded together. This process needs to be repeated many times to achieve the desired effect.

第二,在湿坯上反复填压,力度控制很关键,用力过小,彩泥与陶坯不能充分粘合;用力过大,陶坯容易变形。

Secondly, it is very important to control the strength of filling and pressing repeatedly on the wet adobe. If the force is too small, the color mud and the ceramic body can not be fully bonded; if the force is too large, the ceramic body is easy to deform.

第三,与雕刻时一样,复杂的画作需要若干种颜色的彩泥填入不同的部位,非常考验工艺师的细心与耐心,有时完成一幅画作,需要调制上百种彩泥,并按要求一一填入书画。

Third, as in carving, a complex painting needs several kinds of colored clay to fill in different parts, which tests the craftsman’s care and patience. Sometimes, when a painting is finished, it needs to prepare hundreds of kinds of colored clay and fill in calligraphy and painting one by one according to the requirements.

第四,填彩大多数要填若干道,某个部位填入一种颜色的泥,如果覆盖了其他部位,又要将覆盖的部位的填泥挖出来,再填上那个部位需要的泥,有的部位需要反复填泥多次,比如花瓣过度的颜色,要使过度自然,就需要刻填很多道。

Fourth, most of the color filling should be filled in the trunk road. A certain part should be filled with mud of one color. If other parts are covered, the mud of the covered part should be dug out, and then the mud needed for that part should be filled. Some parts need to be filled with mud repeatedly, such as the excessive color of flower petals. In order to make it too natural, many roads need to be filled.

经过工艺师用填彩刀反复的抹平和挤压,此时的彩泥已经和坯体融为一体,并经过修整,经过几天的阴干后,修坯人员会通过修坯的方法将多余的彩泥刮去,并呈现出填充好的书画作品。

After repeated smoothing and extrusion by the craftsman with a filling knife, the color mud has been integrated with the green body, and has been trimmed. After a few days of dry in the shade, the repair personnel will scrape away the surplus color mud by trimming the blank, and present the filled calligraphy and painting works.

这篇简短的文字其实不能完全描述建水紫陶湿坯绘刻填彩装饰工艺的复杂和其间的各种难度,但希望能够让我们的陶友了解刻填的基本步骤,对我们的刻填工艺师们的工作表达一份敬意。当你在欣赏一件美轮美奂的彩填作品的时候,能够体味作品背后那些艰辛的制作过程。

In fact, this short text can not fully describe the complexity and various difficulties in the decoration process of Jianshui purple pottery, but I hope to let our pottery friends understand the basic steps of engraving and filling, and express our respect for the work of our engraving and filling technologists. When you appreciate a beautiful work of color filling, you can appreciate the hard production process behind the work.

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