建水陶的制作技艺与工艺特色

一件建水紫陶作品的制成,需要经过十到十几道复杂的制作工序。除了烧制,其余工艺都必须全部或大部分依靠手工完成。因此建水紫陶的制作基本不可能由一个人单独完成,它是数人通力合作的结果。在传统的建水紫陶制作工艺中,一般分为制泥、拉坯、绘制、刻坯、填泥、精修、烧制和磨制八个程序,并且分别由专人承担各个工艺的制作。因此,建水陶的制作过程中,保持建水紫陶艺术的整体性尤其重要。往往一个优秀的陶艺创作思路由于制作过程中参与者的失误,造成创作的失败。这就需要创作者(陶艺家)全面熟悉各个工艺环节,并严格要求参与者按照设计意图进行工作。

To make a piece of Jianshui purple pottery requires ten to more complicated processes. Except for firing, all or most of the other processes have to be done by hand. Therefore, it is impossible for Jianshui purple pottery to be made by one person. It is the result of the cooperation of several people. In the traditional production process of Jianshui purple pottery, it is generally divided into eight procedures: mud making, casting, drawing, blank cutting, mud filling, finishing, firing and grinding, and each process is produced by a specially assigned person. Therefore, it is particularly important to maintain the integrity of Jianshui purple pottery art in the production process. Often an excellent ceramic creation ideas due to the mistakes of participants in the production process, resulting in the failure of creation. This requires the creators (ceramists) to be fully familiar with each process and strictly require the participants to work according to the design intent.

制泥

Mud making

建水紫陶原矿泥主要出产于座落在距县城两公里附近的碗窑村。分布在第三系地层中,面积约为0.15平方公里,可见厚度0.54~11.54米,一般厚4~6米。陶土中氧化硅、氧化铁含量特别高,制品质量远胜他处。初步提供储量72.1万吨。④开采出来的矿土细腻坚硬,需要将大小不同的块状泥料摊开放置,自然风干。然后用石磨磨成细粉。其粉末按照大、中、小号粗细不同的筛子人工筛灰,直到矿土成为极细的风尘状泥灰。过筛后按照制陶要求将不同的粉末泥灰进行配比,再将其倒入大陶缸中进行浸泡搅浆,放置沉砂后作再次淘洗搅浆,如此五六次后,在封闭状态下自然凝干成“生泥”。生泥治好后,需放置在石膏缸中一周左右,俗称“醒泥”。将醒后的泥料,用脚踩踏搅拌,直至用泥刀划断泥料,横断面呈细腻的反光镜面时,才是成品陶泥,俗称“熟泥”。上世纪末期,建水工艺美术陶厂成立泥料车间,采用真空练泥机替代人工制泥工艺,建水紫陶手工锤炼泥料的状况才得以改变。

Jianshui Zitao original slime is mainly produced in Wanyao village, two kilometers away from the county seat. It is distributed in Tertiary strata, with an area of about 0.15 square kilometers, visible thickness of 0.54-11.54 meters, and general thickness of 4-6 meters. The content of silicon oxide and iron oxide in the clay is particularly high, and the quality of the products is far better than that of other places. The reserve initially provided is 721000 tons. ④ The mined soil is fine and hard, so it is necessary to spread out and place the massive mud of different sizes and dry them naturally. Then grind it into fine powder with a stone mill. The powder is sieved manually according to the different sizes of large, medium and small sieves until the mineral soil becomes very fine aeolian marl. After sieving, the different powder mortars are mixed according to the requirements of pottery making, and then they are poured into a large pottery jar for soaking and mixing. After placing the grit, the slurry is washed again. After five or six times, it is naturally solidified and dried into “raw mud” in the closed state. After the raw mud is cured, it needs to be placed in the gypsum jar for about a week, commonly known as “awakening mud”. After waking up, trample and stir the clay with feet until the mud is cut off with a trowel, and the cross-section is a fine reflective mirror. It is commonly known as “cooked mud”. At the end of the last century, Jianshui arts and crafts pottery factory set up a mud workshop, using vacuum mud refiner instead of manual mud making process, which changed the situation of Jianshui purple pottery hand hammering mud.

拉坯

Broaching

拉坯是建水紫陶工艺的重要程序之一,直接关系到陶器制成后器形所呈现的艺术效果。传统建水紫陶的拉坯工具是陶车,将炼就之泥放于陶车上,借旋转之力,用双手将泥拉成器坯,凡圆器俱用拉坯方法成型。在拉坯之前,需先以手工揉泥,俗称“揉泥”。操作的主要目的是将泥料中残余的气泡以手工搓揉的方法排出,并使泥料中的水分进一步均匀,以防止烧成过程中产生气泡、变形或开裂。如果泥料水分低于23%,其硬度较高,不易成型,可适当加水,控制泥料水分在24%~25%之间,然后拉坯成型。由于建水紫陶泥的柔软性,且需内外修坯,拉制的坯体因稍微厚些。拉坯不仅要注意到收缩比,而且还应注意到造型。根据不同的造型,较大的制品还要分段拉制。从在哪个部位分段,可以看出拉坯师傅的技艺好坏和水平高低。器物横截面非正圆形的器物则可以采用打泥片的方法制坯。

Casting is one of the important procedures of Jianshui purple pottery, which is directly related to the artistic effect of the shape of the pottery. The traditional casting tool of Jianshui purple pottery is a pottery cart. The refined mud is placed on the clay cart, and the clay is pulled into the body by both hands by rotating force. All round ware is formed by casting. Before casting, it is necessary to knead the mud by hand, commonly known as “kneading mud”. The main purpose of the operation is to discharge the residual bubbles in the slurry by hand kneading, and to make the moisture in the slurry further uniform, so as to prevent bubbles, deformation or cracking during the firing process. If the moisture content of the slurry is lower than 23%, its hardness is higher and it is not easy to form. Appropriate water can be added to control the moisture content of the slurry between 24% and 25%, and then the billet can be formed. Due to the softness of Jianshui purple clay and the need for internal and external trimming, the drawn body is slightly thicker. It is necessary to pay attention not only to the shrinkage ratio but also to the shape of the billet. According to different shapes, larger products have to be drawn in sections. From which part is segmented, we can see the quality and level of the casting master’s skill. If the cross-section of the objects is not circular, the method of beating mud can be used.

装饰

decorate

建水紫陶坯体拉成后,需放置在阴凉处待泥坯自然脱去少许水份,修坯之后根据需要进行绘制工艺。由于建水紫陶装饰的形、色是在绘制后利用刻坯填泥工艺实现的,因此,传统建水陶的绘制过程中一般仅以黑色墨汁绘制。建水陶的绘制工艺与景德镇陶瓷工艺的异同在于:景德镇陶瓷使用颜料直接在坯体上绘制,无论釉上或釉下彩均是在绘制程序中一步到位,进而烧制后便呈现出不同的色彩。而建水陶的色彩是刻坯后再用预先调配好的不同色泥进行填泥工艺后所得,因此绘制的过程只利用单色绘制,不分墨色浓淡,并且绘制的进行,必须随时保持坯体湿润。相同的是,传统建水陶的绘制依然讲究绘制者的审美修养和书画功力,并且往往作品的价值取决于绘制工作是否由书画名家来承担,虽然这有失偏颇,建水陶是多人协作的陶的艺术,它和中国书画有本质的不同,但从一个侧面也反映了绘制工艺对于传统建水陶艺术的重要意义。

After the body of Jianshui purple pottery is drawn, it needs to be placed in a cool place until a little moisture is naturally removed from the clay body. After the blank is trimmed, the drawing process is carried out according to the needs. Because the shape and color of Jianshui purple pottery decoration is achieved after drawing, the traditional drawing process of Jianshui purple pottery is only painted with black ink. The similarities and differences between the drawing process of Jianshui pottery and that of Jingdezhen ceramics lie in the following: Jingdezhen ceramics use pigments to draw directly on the green body. Both the overglaze and underglaze colors are in place one step in the drawing process, and then show different colors after firing. However, the color of Jianshui pottery is obtained by filling mud with different color mud prepared in advance after cutting. Therefore, the drawing process only uses single color drawing, regardless of ink color. Moreover, the green body must be kept moist at any time. The same thing is, the traditional painting of Jianshui pottery still pays attention to the painter’s aesthetic cultivation and painting skills, and often the value of the work depends on whether the painting work is undertaken by the famous calligraphers and painters. Although this is biased, Jianshui pottery is an art of pottery with many people’s cooperation. It is different from Chinese calligraphy and painting in essence, but it also reflects the drawing technology for traditional Jianshui pottery art from one side The importance of.

刻坯

Cutting blank

刻坯的传统工具为自制的钢针,一般利用伞骨将其一端煅打并磨制为长约1.5厘米的斜状刃口,刃尖极为纤细锋利。刻坯时首先沿着坯体上墨迹两侧的边缘作垂直刻划,较细的墨线即可直接将泥挑出,较宽的图形则需要逐点切挑,直至将有墨迹的部分全部去除形成底部均匀的凹槽。刻坯过程中必须保持坯体在一定的湿度,一般以塑料薄膜将器形的口部和暂不进行雕刻的部分包裹,以免水份挥发,暴露在空气中的部分需适时用喷壶喷水,尽可能的使整个坯体保持在一定的湿度。刻坯是建水紫陶的代表性工艺技术,特别是笔画精细处,需尽其精微,纤毫毕现。刻划过深,烧制时器体易裂;刻划过浅,打磨后则会损伤画面。

The traditional tool for cutting blanks is a self-made steel needle. Generally, one end of the steel needle is forged and ground into a 1.5cm long oblique edge with a very thin and sharp edge. When engraving the blank, first make a vertical mark along the edges of both sides of the ink mark on the green body. The thinner ink line can directly pick out the mud, while the wider figure needs to be cut point by point until all the ink marks are removed to form a uniform groove at the bottom. It is necessary to keep the green body in a certain humidity during the process of engraving. Generally, plastic film is used to wrap the mouth of the device shape and the part not to be engraved temporarily, so as to avoid water volatilization. The part exposed to the air should be sprayed with water timely to keep the whole green body at a certain humidity as far as possible. Carving blank is the representative technology of Jianshui purple pottery, especially the fine strokes, which need to be as subtle as possible. If the engraving is too deep, the body is easy to crack when firing; if the engraving is too shallow, the image will be damaged after grinding.

填泥

Mud filling

填泥是实现建水紫陶绘制图形和色彩变化的重要工艺程序。天然建水紫陶土中主要有红、白二色泥料,其他颜色均需要加入色剂调配。每种色泥分别用一小桶盛放,酌情加入清水使其呈糊状泥浆。泥坯刻好后,根据画面色彩要求以铁片挑起色泥,拍嵌在泥坯刻划处,并将色泥抹平。待嵌上的色泥稍干后会因空气吸附自然凹陷,然后需再次嵌泥,反复数次直到色泥与坯体牢牢地结合在一起。在嵌泥过程中同样需要喷水,使坯体始终保持湿润不断使用铁片紧压色泥,如此才能去除泥料中的空气,保证陶器成品表面的光洁平整。

Mud filling is an important process to realize the drawing and color change of Jianshui purple pottery. Natural Jianshui purple clay is mainly composed of red and white mud, and other colors need to be mixed with colorants. Each kind of color mud is put in a small bucket, and water is added as appropriate to make it paste. After the clay block is engraved, lift the color mud with iron sheet according to the color requirements of the picture, pat and embed the color mud at the cutting position of the mud block, and smooth the color mud. When the color mud on the inlay is slightly dry, it will naturally sag due to air adsorption, and then it needs to be embedded again for several times until the color mud is firmly combined with the green body. In the process of embedding the clay, it is also necessary to spray water to keep the green body moist all the time, and to press the color mud tightly with iron sheet continuously, so as to remove the air in the mud and ensure the smooth and smooth surface of the finished pottery.

精修

Refinement

经过绘制、刻坯、嵌泥后陶坯的表面已受到损伤,此时需要对坯体进行精修。精修陶坯需要保持一定的干湿度,太干太湿都会损伤坯面的刻嵌部分和器形的标准。精修过程中,首先是仔细检查坯体时候有气泡,如遇气泡应用刻刀将其挑破再将泥削抹平压实。横截面为圆形的器物可以使用陶车修坯,需要将泥坯放上陶车,根据器形的要求利用各种专用的铁片或塑胶工具进行修坯,修坯时应注意双手的稳健以及手与陶车的配合,易薄不易厚,以免修坏坯体的上绘制的图形。如果横截面非正圆形或者异形的陶坯则需要全手工修坯。手工修坯完全依靠修坯者的经验根据器物形体和刻嵌要求反复打理,耗费的时间相对较多,效果自然也更好。 

After drawing, engraving and embedding clay, the surface of ceramic body has been damaged, so it is necessary to finish the body. It is necessary to keep a certain degree of dry and humidity for the ceramic body. If it is too dry or too wet, it will damage the inlaid part and the standard of the shape of the ware. In the process of finishing, first of all, carefully check whether there are bubbles in the green body. If there are bubbles, use a cutter to pick them out, and then smooth and compact the mud. For objects with a circular cross-section, you can use the clay car to repair the body. You need to put the clay block on the clay car. According to the shape requirements, you should use various special iron or plastic tools to repair the blank. When repairing, you should pay attention to the stability of your hands and the coordination between the hands and the pottery cart. It is easy to thin and not easy to thick, so as to avoid damaging the figure drawn on the green body. If the cross-section is not round or special-shaped ceramic blank, it needs full manual trimming. Manual trimming depends entirely on the experience of the dresser, and according to the shape of the implements and the requirements of engraving, it takes relatively more time, and the effect is naturally better.

烧制

Firing

早期建水紫陶的烧制都是在长约几十米的龙窑中点燃柴薪提高温度,完成烧制,由于龙窑烧制需要经验丰富的陶工观察火候及火色,并且成品率不高。现在已基本采用气窑(液化气)或电窑。建水陶烧成温度一般在1100℃至1200℃,烧制时间为7至12小时左右。高温中,陶土易熔物质化为液态填充入未熔颗粒的间隙之间,使得泥坯收缩系数较高,建水陶烧成之后的收缩率大概为15%至20%,因此质地细密坚实。建水陶的烧制一般有氧化和还原两种烧制方法。

The early firing of Jianshui purple pottery was completed by lighting firewood in a long kiln with a length of several tens of meters. Because the Longyao firing required experienced potters to observe the temperature and fire color, and the yield of finished products was not high. Now gas kiln (liquefied gas) or electric kiln has been basically used. Jianshui pottery is usually fired at 1100 ℃ to 1200 ℃ for about 7 to 12 hours. At high temperature, the clay melts into a liquid and fills the gap between the unmelted particles, which makes the shrinkage coefficient of the clay body higher. The shrinkage rate of Jianshui pottery after firing is about 15% to 20%, so the texture is fine and solid. There are two firing methods of Jianshui pottery: oxidation and reduction.

氧化烧即是在烧制过程中,窑室内一直都有充足的氧气供给,一氧化碳浓度较低,为了使坯中水分及一切有机物都蒸发和挥发排出,使坯体得到正常的收缩,所以在烧窑过程中必须有氧化烧的阶段。建水陶红白两种基本泥料在使用氧化焰烧制后,火皮呈一种俗称“猪肝红”的暗红色,白泥呈明度较高的黄白色,俗称“象牙白”,并且使用氧化烧制的器物,打磨后色彩变化较小;

Oxidation burning means that in the process of firing, there is always sufficient oxygen supply in the kiln chamber, and the concentration of carbon monoxide is low. In order to make the moisture and all organic matters in the green body evaporate and volatilize, so that the green body can get normal shrinkage, there must be oxidation burning stage in the kiln process. The red and white clay of Jianshui pottery is dark red, which is commonly known as “pig liver red”, and the white mud is yellow white with high brightness, commonly known as “ivory white”, and the color change of the objects made by oxidation is small after grinding;

还原烧是在窑内温度上升约至900℃左右之后,开始减少窑内的氧气,使窑中产生缺氧的情形,导致火焰需从坏体或硼中寻找可供继续燃烧的氧气。当窑炉内一氧化碳的浓度在2%至4%时,陶坯中的铁元素便在还原过程中呈现褐黑色。使用还原焰烧制后的火皮呈现黑褐色和青白色,打磨后色彩变化较大,可获得纯黑色、黑红相间和灰青色。

Reduction burning is a case where the temperature in the kiln rises to about 900 ℃, and then the oxygen in the kiln is reduced, which causes the oxygen in the kiln to be anoxia, which leads to the flame need to search for oxygen from the bad body or boron for continuous combustion. When the concentration of carbon monoxide in the kiln is between 2% and 4%, the iron in the ceramic billet will appear brown black during the reduction process. The fire skin after burning with reduction flame shows black brown and blue white. After polishing, the color changes greatly, and the pure black, black and red and gray green colors can be obtained.

无釉磨光

Unglazed polishing

无釉磨制是建水紫陶的重要特色之一,也是整个建水紫陶制作工艺中最为耗时耗工的部分。建水紫陶泥质细腻无砂,通过磨制工艺即可获得器物表面哑光、亮光和镜面光等不同的质感效果。传统建水陶的磨制工艺分为去火皮、去丝和抛光三个部分。刚烧制成功的建水陶表面粗糙生、质坚如铁,并有一层金属光泽,此即是“火皮”,打磨时首先需要用粗砂石沾水磨去火皮,去掉火皮的器物表面会因为粗石的摩擦留下划痕,因而需要再用较细腻油石沾水均匀的将粗石划痕除去,此过程即为“去丝”,去丝后即可获得哑光的质感效果。如果需要获得亮光的效果,就必须进行抛光,抛光必须使用建水独有的及其细腻的白色鹅卵石沾水进行反复研磨,直道器物表面光亮鉴人为止。在打磨工艺中,每个步骤都需要小心细致,均匀用力,轻磨轻研,以免磨坏器面。

Glaze free grinding is one of the important characteristics of the water-building purple pottery, and it is also the most time consuming part of the whole process. The water purple clay is fine and sand free. The surface of the ware can be obtained by grinding technology, such as matte, bright and specular light. The traditional grinding technology of water ceramics is divided into three parts: Fire removing, wire removing and polishing. The surface of newly fired water building pottery is rough and solid as iron, and has a layer of metal luster. This is called “fire skin”. When polishing, it is necessary to use coarse sand stone to dip water to remove the fire skin. The surface of the utensil removed from the fire skin will leave scratches due to the friction of the coarse stone. Therefore, the scratch of coarse stone should be removed evenly with the water of the fine greasy oil stone. This process is called “wire removal”. After the wire is removed, the scratch of coarse stone can be removed Get matte texture. If the effect of bright light is needed, polishing must be carried out. Polishing must be repeated with water covered with white pebbles unique to Jianshui and the surface of straight ware shall be bright until the person is clear. In the grinding process, every step needs to be careful, even force, light grinding and grinding, so as to avoid damaging the surface of the machine.

未经允许不得转载:饮茶乎 » 建水陶的制作技艺与工艺特色

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