From the perspective of handed down products, the decoration of Jianshui purple pottery “remnant calligraphy” first appeared in the Guangxu period of the Qing Dynasty (1875-1908). According to the local chronicles, Wang Yongqing’s “fragmentary chapter” of “Duanjian” had a tendency to turn over and dilapidated, and copy the seal script Yingli real grass on it, all of which are forced to force the zodiac, the so-called “Bu Gong Tu”. In the early stage, he made fan fan pieces, and people competed for treasures. Later, he was dedicated to pottery. Therefore, according to the records of “Jianshui chronicles · figures” in the Republic of China, it is believed that the “remnant sheet” was invented by Wang Yongqing.
In fact, Wang Yongqing’s “original creation”, “creation” or “invention” and “remnant post” are all questionable.
“Residual calligraphy” is the inheritance and development of traditional aesthetic art in the decoration of Jianshui purple pottery. The beauty of incomplete belongs to a special form in the category of aesthetics. As early as the pre Qin Dynasty, people used “incomplete books, no words and no intention” to express the beauty of incomplete. Laozi even advocated that “if there is a big success, it is beauty.”. Traditional calligraphy and painting “cloth white”, the incomplete side in seal cutting, horse corner and half side of summer “, the residual sentences of Tang poetry and Song Ci, the broken bridge and snow in the plastic arts, and” Brocade ash pile “,” eight broken patterns “and so on, all of them reflect the pursuit of the beauty of” incomplete “.
The “incomplete post” in Jianshui purple pottery decoration is the embodiment of the traditional culture of “if the great success is incomplete”, “the shape is incomplete and the spirit is preserved” and “the beauty is not complete”. It is the inheritance and development of the aesthetic value of “incomplete beauty” in pottery decoration. The overlapped color areas and different styles of calligraphy in the color areas, as well as the broken and fragmentary “rotten bamboo books” composed of incomplete inscriptions, poems and famous sentences, strongly require the appreciators to mobilize their common sense, emotions and thoughts to associate and fill in the overlapped parts of the contents, so as to finally eliminate these tensions and move towards Gestalt, so as to get a complete understanding of the works In association and imagination, I can feel the artistic conception and charm of incomplete beauty.
The beauty of “remnant calligraphy” lies in “remnant”, which is an artistic form of expression with “remnant” and “deficient” elements. This form not only existed since ancient times, but also formed a major school of Chinese painting as early as the Yuan Dynasty, that is, “Jin Hui Dui”. The word “Jin Hui Dui” originated from the scroll of Jin Hui Dui (1239-1301) written by Qian Xuan (1239-1301) in Yuan Dynasty. It says, “the world abandons things, and the rest does not abandon. The pen is used to draw the sun and the moon.” The picture shows chelonian seal, shrimp tail, chicken plume, clam shell, bamboo shoot sheath, Lotus House and other objects, all of which are useless and discarded. It seems disorderly, but it is a realistic painting with unique three-dimensional visual art characteristics.
At the end of the Qing Dynasty, the painting style of “Jin Hui Dui” was very popular. No matter old books, incomplete books, official documents or private letters, abandoned contracts, short slips, etc., could be copied into paintings. “Jinhuidui” has developed into a popular school of literati painting, including yuan Defu, Chen Erzhi, Zheng Dafu, Zhao Songtao, sun Lichuan, Jiang Zhengwu, Zhu Shiqu and Zhu Rong. However, Wang Yongqing’s “patchwork painting” can still be found in the decorative drawings of ancient buildings in Jianshui. For example, on the wall of zengbin house in Jianshui County, Wang Yongqing’s “remnant paste” paintings are still preserved.
From this point of view, Wang Yongqing was not only a painter of “Jin huidui” who was good at making small fan faces of “overturned and dilapidated” pieces, but also good at calligraphy and printing and decorating pottery. Therefore, he applied the three-dimensional visual art of “Jin huidui” and “eight broken patterns” on Purple pottery to make it perfect and complement each other.
From the perspective of performance themes, “jinhuidui” takes the damaged fragments of objects such as pincers, seals, shrimp tails, chicken feathers, clam shells, bamboo shoots, lotus houses, calligraphy, paintings, old books, old fans, steles, letters, albums and other damaged material fragments as the performance materials, which vaguely reveals the incomplete beauty left by the years among the rich and beautiful ruins. Therefore, it is commonly known as “canhua”. In order to highlight the characteristics of “residual”, Jianshui purple pottery abandoned the practice of fragments of the damaged pieces in the “Jinhui pile”, and absorbed the essence of the Jinshi heap, especially the inscriptions, inscriptions, calligraphy, famous poems and famous phrases in the theme of “eight broken pictures”, and developed into a unique decorative art form of literati – “broken fragments”. The inheritance and innovation of “eight broken pictures” painting technique.
From the perspective of art form, “Jin huidui” adopts the method of color block pasting, covering and laminating, reconstructs the ancient appearance of rupture, roll, stack, stain, tear, fire and smoke, forming a fragmentary simple and elegant, full of interest, presenting the artistic effect of “non calligraphy is better than calligraphy, non painting is better than painting”, which is favored by literati and scholars, so it is also known as “eight broken pictures” “Ba Duan brocade” and “overturn the paper basket”. At the end of Qing Dynasty, the theme of “Ba Po” appeared in a large number of objects, such as light crimson porcelain plate, pen holder, hat tube, bowl, pot and so on.
“Fragmentary paste” inherits the expression techniques of repeated overlapping of color blocks and incomplete materials in the art of “Jin Hui Dui” and “Ba Po Tu”. It is a unique decorative art and symbolic pattern of purple pottery in Jianshui, which is made by the unique printing and filling color and glaze free polishing process of Jianshui purple pottery.
“Remnant calligraphy” takes traditional calligraphy as the decoration theme. On the surface of the unfinished pottery, natural clay such as white, blue, yellow, red, orange and purple is used. The color separation area is inlaid into the ceramic body decoration area in order. Then, the famous inscriptions, inscriptions, poems and songs, aphorisms, and ancient sayings are decorated with calligraphic forms of regular script, line, grass, Li and Zhuan In the color area, the content of the first color area is partially covered by the second color area, and part of the content of the second color area is covered by the third color area, and so on. The color area and the book content are repeatedly covered and overlapped, and then the comprehensive treatment of writing, engraving, filling, coating, overlapping, scraping, poking, rubbing, grinding and other ceramic techniques is carried out It is similar to “Duanjian fragmentary chapter”, which adds mottled and unsophisticated charm of gold and stone and profound cultural connotation to the ancient incomplete art form.
It can be seen that the art of “residual” decoration is not the original creation of purple pottery, nor is it invented by Wang Yongqing. The “residual paste” is in line with the ancient “Jin heap” painting art and the “eight tattoo” decoration of Jingdezhen porcelain. It is drawing on the idea of “incomplete” in the art of “Jinhui pile” and the pressing technique of pile stacking, and absorbing the essence of “eight break” decorative art, such as stings, calligraphy, and so on. Cheng’s unique decorative art is the inheritance, application and development of excellent ceramic decorative art in Jianshui purple pottery decoration.