紫陶残帖和锦灰堆有什么关系和区别?

紫陶残帖和锦灰堆有什么关系和区别?插图

从传世品看,建水紫陶“残帖”装饰最早出现在清光绪年间(1875-1908年),研究者多据地方志关于王永清“好作‘断简残篇’得翻卷残破之势,摹篆颖隶真草于其上,无不逼肖,所谓补衮图也。初作小品扇面,人争宝之,后乃专施于陶器,遂相沿成风”(民国《建水志稿·人物》)的记载,认为“残帖”是王永清发明的。

From the perspective of handed down products, the decoration of Jianshui purple pottery “remnant calligraphy” first appeared in the Guangxu period of the Qing Dynasty (1875-1908). According to the local chronicles, Wang Yongqing’s “fragmentary chapter” of “Duanjian” had a tendency to turn over and dilapidated, and copy the seal script Yingli real grass on it, all of which are forced to force the zodiac, the so-called “Bu Gong Tu”. In the early stage, he made fan fan pieces, and people competed for treasures. Later, he was dedicated to pottery. Therefore, according to the records of “Jianshui chronicles · figures” in the Republic of China, it is believed that the “remnant sheet” was invented by Wang Yongqing.

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其实,关于王永清“独创”“开创”或者“发明”“残帖”的说法都是值得商榷的。

In fact, Wang Yongqing’s “original creation”, “creation” or “invention” and “remnant post” are all questionable.

“残帖”是传统审美艺术在建水紫陶装饰中的继承和发展。残缺美属于美学范畴中的一种特殊形态,早在先秦时期,人们就用“书不尽言,言不尽意”来表达“残缺之美”。老子甚至主张“大成若缺”,即缺处就是美处。传统书法、绘画中的“布白”,篆刻中的“残边”,“马一角”、“夏半边”的“不全之全”,唐诗宋词的残句,造型艺术中的断桥残雪,以及“锦灰堆”、“八破纹”等等,无一不体现着对“残缺”美的追求。

“Residual calligraphy” is the inheritance and development of traditional aesthetic art in the decoration of Jianshui purple pottery. The beauty of incomplete belongs to a special form in the category of aesthetics. As early as the pre Qin Dynasty, people used “incomplete books, no words and no intention” to express the beauty of incomplete. Laozi even advocated that “if there is a big success, it is beauty.”. Traditional calligraphy and painting “cloth white”, the incomplete side in seal cutting, horse corner and half side of summer “, the residual sentences of Tang poetry and Song Ci, the broken bridge and snow in the plastic arts, and” Brocade ash pile “,” eight broken patterns “and so on, all of them reflect the pursuit of the beauty of” incomplete “.

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建水紫陶装饰中的“残帖”,正是传统文化中“大成若缺”、“形残神存”、“未尽之美”的体现,是对陶器装饰中“残缺美”审美价值的继承与发扬。那层层迭压的色区和色区上不同的书体,以及由残缺不全的金石铭文、诗词、名句内容构成的断简残篇般的“烂简书”,强烈要求欣赏者调动自己的常识、情绪、思想等去联想、去填充迭压部分的内容,以最终消解这些张力而走向完形,得出自己对作品的完整认识,在联想和想象中体会到残缺美的意境和魅力。

The “incomplete post” in Jianshui purple pottery decoration is the embodiment of the traditional culture of “if the great success is incomplete”, “the shape is incomplete and the spirit is preserved” and “the beauty is not complete”. It is the inheritance and development of the aesthetic value of “incomplete beauty” in pottery decoration. The overlapped color areas and different styles of calligraphy in the color areas, as well as the broken and fragmentary “rotten bamboo books” composed of incomplete inscriptions, poems and famous sentences, strongly require the appreciators to mobilize their common sense, emotions and thoughts to associate and fill in the overlapped parts of the contents, so as to finally eliminate these tensions and move towards Gestalt, so as to get a complete understanding of the works In association and imagination, I can feel the artistic conception and charm of incomplete beauty.

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“残帖”之美,在于“残”,是以“残”“缺”元素为表现手法的艺术表现形式,而这种形式不仅自古有之,而且早在元代就形成了中国画的一大流派,即“锦灰堆”。“锦灰堆”一词最早出自元代钱选(1239 -1301年)的《锦灰堆》图卷(见《石渠宝籍初编》、《吴越所见书画录》),题曰:“世间弃物,余所不弃,笔之于图,消引日月。”图中所画乃螯钤、虾尾、鸡翎、蚌壳、笋箨、莲房等物,皆食余剥胜、无用当弃之物,看似杂乱无章,实则是独具三维视觉艺术特点的写实画法。

The beauty of “remnant calligraphy” lies in “remnant”, which is an artistic form of expression with “remnant” and “deficient” elements. This form not only existed since ancient times, but also formed a major school of Chinese painting as early as the Yuan Dynasty, that is, “Jin Hui Dui”. The word “Jin Hui Dui” originated from the scroll of Jin Hui Dui (1239-1301) written by Qian Xuan (1239-1301) in Yuan Dynasty. It says, “the world abandons things, and the rest does not abandon. The pen is used to draw the sun and the moon.” The picture shows chelonian seal, shrimp tail, chicken plume, clam shell, bamboo shoot sheath, Lotus House and other objects, all of which are useless and discarded. It seems disorderly, but it is a realistic painting with unique three-dimensional visual art characteristics.

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清末“锦灰堆”画风盛行,不论旧书、残帖、公文或私札、废契、短简等,都可临摹成画。“锦灰堆”发展成为颇受欢迎的文人画派,先后出现袁德甫、陈二指、郑达甫、赵松涛、孙丽川、姜正武及朱石渠、朱荣等著名的“锦灰堆”画家。而王永清所作“补衮图”,在建水古建筑装饰图中仍能找到其踪影,如建水县城曾彬宅院板壁上,至今保留有王永清“残贴”画。

At the end of the Qing Dynasty, the painting style of “Jin Hui Dui” was very popular. No matter old books, incomplete books, official documents or private letters, abandoned contracts, short slips, etc., could be copied into paintings. “Jinhuidui” has developed into a popular school of literati painting, including yuan Defu, Chen Erzhi, Zheng Dafu, Zhao Songtao, sun Lichuan, Jiang Zhengwu, Zhu Shiqu and Zhu Rong. However, Wang Yongqing’s “patchwork painting” can still be found in the decorative drawings of ancient buildings in Jianshui. For example, on the wall of zengbin house in Jianshui County, Wang Yongqing’s “remnant paste” paintings are still preserved.

由此看来,王永清在运用“残贴”装饰紫陶之前,不仅是善作“翻卷残破之势”小品扇面的“锦灰堆”画家,而且精于书法,擅于制印饰陶,因此,他将“锦灰堆”和“八破纹”的三维视觉艺术施于紫陶之上,使之珠联璧合,相得益彰,也在情理之中。

From this point of view, Wang Yongqing was not only a painter of “Jin huidui” who was good at making small fan faces of “overturned and dilapidated” pieces, but also good at calligraphy and printing and decorating pottery. Therefore, he applied the three-dimensional visual art of “Jin huidui” and “eight broken patterns” on Purple pottery to make it perfect and complement each other.

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从表现题材来看,“锦灰堆”以螯、钤、虾尾、鸡翎、蚌壳、笋箨、莲房、字帖、画稿、旧书、旧扇、碑拓、信札、册页等残损实物片段为表现素材,在锦绣残落间隐隐地透出岁月留痕的残缺美,因而,俗称“残画”。为突出“残”这一特征,建水紫陶舍弃“锦灰堆”中残损实物片段均可入画的做法,吸取了“锦灰堆”、特别是“八破图”题材中的金石铭文、碑拓、书法名帖、诗词、名言绝句等精华,发展成为独具特色的文人装饰艺术形式——“断简残篇”,是对“锦灰堆”“八破图”绘画手法的继承和创新。

From the perspective of performance themes, “jinhuidui” takes the damaged fragments of objects such as pincers, seals, shrimp tails, chicken feathers, clam shells, bamboo shoots, lotus houses, calligraphy, paintings, old books, old fans, steles, letters, albums and other damaged material fragments as the performance materials, which vaguely reveals the incomplete beauty left by the years among the rich and beautiful ruins. Therefore, it is commonly known as “canhua”. In order to highlight the characteristics of “residual”, Jianshui purple pottery abandoned the practice of fragments of the damaged pieces in the “Jinhui pile”, and absorbed the essence of the Jinshi heap, especially the inscriptions, inscriptions, calligraphy, famous poems and famous phrases in the theme of “eight broken pictures”, and developed into a unique decorative art form of literati – “broken fragments”. The inheritance and innovation of “eight broken pictures” painting technique.

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从艺术形式来看,“锦灰堆”采用色块堆帖、覆盖、迭压的方法,将破裂、翻卷、堆栈、玷污、撕裂、火烧和烟熏等古旧样貌加以重构,构成残章断简的古朴典雅、趣味横生,呈现“非书胜于书、非画胜于画”的艺术效果,备受文人雅士的青睐,故又名“八破图”“八段锦”“打翻字纸箩”等。清末,八破”题材大量出现在浅绛彩瓷盘、笔筒、帽筒、碗、壶等物件上,成为具有文人色彩的装饰性图案。

From the perspective of art form, “Jin huidui” adopts the method of color block pasting, covering and laminating, reconstructs the ancient appearance of rupture, roll, stack, stain, tear, fire and smoke, forming a fragmentary simple and elegant, full of interest, presenting the artistic effect of “non calligraphy is better than calligraphy, non painting is better than painting”, which is favored by literati and scholars, so it is also known as “eight broken pictures” “Ba Duan brocade” and “overturn the paper basket”. At the end of Qing Dynasty, the theme of “Ba Po” appeared in a large number of objects, such as light crimson porcelain plate, pen holder, hat tube, bowl, pot and so on.

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“残帖”继承了“锦灰堆”、“八破图”艺术中色块重复叠加、素材残缺不全的表现手法,并采用建水紫陶独特的刊刻填彩、无釉磨光工艺而制成的具有断简残篇般古拙苍劲、斑驳残缺的装饰图案,成为紫陶独具特色的装饰艺术和标志性图案。

“Fragmentary paste” inherits the expression techniques of repeated overlapping of color blocks and incomplete materials in the art of “Jin Hui Dui” and “Ba Po Tu”. It is a unique decorative art and symbolic pattern of purple pottery in Jianshui, which is made by the unique printing and filling color and glaze free polishing process of Jianshui purple pottery.

紫陶残帖和锦灰堆有什么关系和区别?插图8

“残帖”以传统书法体为装饰主题,在未干的陶坯表面使用白、蓝、黄、红、橙、紫等天然陶土色泥,分色区按顺序镶嵌入陶坯装饰区域,再分别运用书法中楷、行、草、隶、篆等书体形式,把我国历代著名的金石铭文、碑帖、诗赋、词曲、格言、古语等内容装饰于色区上,不同书体内容适配不同色区,按顺序第一色区内容有部分被第二色区覆盖,第二色区内容有部分被第三色区覆盖,以此类推,色区与书体内容之间反复交替,多次覆盖,层层迭压,之后再经过写、刻、填、涂、迭、刮、戳、擦、磨等陶上技法的综合处理,形成类似“断简残篇”的表像特征,为古老的残缺艺术形式增添了斑驳古拙的金石韵味和深遂的文化内涵。

“Remnant calligraphy” takes traditional calligraphy as the decoration theme. On the surface of the unfinished pottery, natural clay such as white, blue, yellow, red, orange and purple is used. The color separation area is inlaid into the ceramic body decoration area in order. Then, the famous inscriptions, inscriptions, poems and songs, aphorisms, and ancient sayings are decorated with calligraphic forms of regular script, line, grass, Li and Zhuan In the color area, the content of the first color area is partially covered by the second color area, and part of the content of the second color area is covered by the third color area, and so on. The color area and the book content are repeatedly covered and overlapped, and then the comprehensive treatment of writing, engraving, filling, coating, overlapping, scraping, poking, rubbing, grinding and other ceramic techniques is carried out It is similar to “Duanjian fragmentary chapter”, which adds mottled and unsophisticated charm of gold and stone and profound cultural connotation to the ancient incomplete art form.

可见,“残帖”装饰艺术并非建水紫陶独创,也非王永清发明,“残帖”与古老的“锦灰堆”绘画艺术和景德镇瓷器“八破纹”装饰一脉相承,它是在借鉴“锦灰堆”绘画艺术中的“残缺”理念和堆帖迭压手法,吸取“八破纹”装饰艺术中的碑帖、书法等精华而形成的独具特色的装饰艺术,是祖国优秀陶瓷装饰艺术在建水紫陶装饰中的继承、运用和发扬光大。

It can be seen that the art of “residual” decoration is not the original creation of purple pottery, nor is it invented by Wang Yongqing. The “residual paste” is in line with the ancient “Jin heap” painting art and the “eight tattoo” decoration of Jingdezhen porcelain. It is drawing on the idea of “incomplete” in the art of “Jinhui pile” and the pressing technique of pile stacking, and absorbing the essence of “eight break” decorative art, such as stings, calligraphy, and so on. Cheng’s unique decorative art is the inheritance, application and development of excellent ceramic decorative art in Jianshui purple pottery decoration.

未经允许不得转载:饮茶乎 » 紫陶残帖和锦灰堆有什么关系和区别?

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